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Biological Radiation Effects - Jurgen Kiefer

Biological Radiation Effects

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Published: March 1990
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Covers all aspects of biological radiation effects and provides the fundamental basis for understanding the necessity of radiation protection as well as applications in radiotherapy. The text deals with the physical basis in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are thoroughly discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects).

1 Types of Radiation: Characterization and Sources.- 1.1 Types of Radiation.- 1.2 Emission Spectra.- 1.3 Radiation Sources.- 1.3.1 Optical Radiation.- 1.3.2 Ionizing Radiation.- 1.4 Radioactivity.- 2 Fundamentals of Radiation Attenuation in Matter.- 2.1 Interaction Cross Section.- 2.2 Collision Processes.- 3 Interaction Processes.- 3.1 Optical Radiation.- 3.2 Ionizing Radiation.- 3.2.1 Electromagnetic Radiation.- 3.2.1.1 General.- 3.2.1.2 COMPTON Effect.- 3.2.1.3 Photoeffect.- 3.2.1.4 Pair Formation.- 3.2.1.5 AUGER Effect.- 3.2.1.6 Summary of Photon Interactions.- 3.2.2 Neutrons.- 3.2.3 Ions.- 3.2.4 Mesons.- 3.2.5 Electrons.- 3.2.6 Ranges.- 3.2.7 Fluence and Slowing Down Spectrum.- 4 Deposition of Radiation Energy.- 4.1 General Aspects.- 4.2 Ionizing Radiation.- 4.2.1 Macroscopic Aspects.- 4.2.1.1 Dose and Exposure.- 4.2.1.2 Linear Energy Transfer.- 4.2.2 Depth Dose Curves.- 4.2.3 Microdosimetry.- 4.2.4 Track Structure.- 4.2.5 Dosimetry of Incorporated Radionuclides.- 4.3 Dosimetry of Optical Radiation.- 5 Elements of Photo- and Radiation Chemistry.- 5.1 Photochemistry.- 5.1.1 Fundamentals.- 5.1.2 Photosensitization.- 5.1.3 Action Spectroscopy.- 5.1.4 Special Reactions.- 5.1.4.1 Atmospheric Photochemistry.- 5.1.4.2 Photochemical Formation of Vitamin D.- 5.2 Radiation Chemistry.- 5.2.1 Fundamentals.- 5.2.2 Radiation Chemistry of Water.- 5.2.3 Direct and Indirect Effect.- 6 Photo- and Radiation Chemistry of DNA.- 6.1 Photochemical Alterations.- 6.1.1 General Aspects.- 6.1.2 UV-induced Base Alterations.- 6.1.3 Sensitized Reactions.- 6.2 Radiation Chemistry of DNA.- 7 Radiation Effects on Subcellular Systems.- 7.1 Target Theory.- 7.2 Gene Mapping.- 7.3 Viruses, Plasmids, Transforming DNA, and Vectors.- 7.3.1 Techniques.- 7.3.2 Radiation Action.- 7.3.2.1 Inactivation.- 7.3.2.2 Induction.- 7.3.3 Special Repair Processes.- 7.3.3.1 Host Cell Reactivation.- 7.3.3.2 WEIGLE Reactivation.- 7.3.3.3 Phage-directed Repair.- 7.3.3.4 Multiplicity Reactivation.- 8 Loss of Reproductive Ability in Cells.- 8.1 Survival Curves.- 8.2 Radiation Sensitivity and Nuclear Parameters.- 8.3 Radiation Quality.- 8.3.1 Action Spectra.- 8.3.2 LET Dependence.- 8.3.3 Interaction Between Different Types of Radiation.- 8.3.3.1 General Aspects.- 8.3.3.2 Interaction Between UV and Ionizing Radiation.- 8.3.3.3 Interaction Between Low- and High LET Radiation.- 9 Radiosensitization and Protection.- 9.1 Photosensitization.- 9.2 Sensitization and Protection with Ionizing Radiation.- 9.2.1 Radioprotective Substances.- 9.2.2 The Oxygen Effect.- 9.2.3 Radiation Sensitizers.- 10 Radiation and the Cell Cycle.- 10.1 Radiation Sensitivity as a Function of Cell Cycle Stage.- 10.2 Progression and Division Delay.- 10.3 DNA Synthesis.- 11 Chromosome Aberrations.- 12 Mutation and Transformation.- 12.1 Mutation Types and Test Procedures.- 12.2 Mutation Induction in Microorganisms.- 12.3 Mutation Induction in Mammalian Cells.- 12.4 Comparison of Radiation-induced Mutations in Different Systems.- 12.5 Molecular Aspects of Radiation-induced Mutagenesis in Cells.- 12.6 Neoplastic Transformation in vitro.- 13 Repair and Recovery.- 13.1 General Aspects and Definitions.- 13.2 Specific Repair Processes.- 13.2.1 Photoreactivation.- 13.2.2 Excision Repair.- 13.2.3 Post Replication Repair.- 13.2.4 SOS Repair.- 13.2.5 Mismatch Repair.- 13.2.6 Single-strand Break Repair.- 13.2.7 Double-strand Break Repair.- 13.3 Recovery.- 13.3.1 "Split-dose Recovery".- 13.3.2 Recovery from Potentially Lethal Damage.- 13.4 Genetic Dependence of Repair Processes.- 14 Modifications of Radiation Effects by External Influences.- 14.1 General Aspects.- 14.2 The Time Factor in Radiation Biology.- 14.3 Temperature.- 14.4 Chemicals.- 14.5 Tonicity.- 15 Special Aspects of Cellular Radiation Action.- 15.1 Near Ultraviolet and Visible Light.- 15.2 Other Types of Radiation.- 15.2.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 15.2.2 Ultrasound.- 15.2.3 Radiofrequency and Microwaves.- 15.3 Incorporated Radionuclides.- 15.4 Radiomimetics.- 16 Theoretical Models of Cellular Radiation Action.- 16.1 Target Theory.- 16.2 The Two-Lesion-Model (Neary 1965).- 16.3 Theories Based on Microdosimetric Considerations.- 16.4 The "Molecular Theory".- 16.5 Track Structure and Action Cross Sections.- 16.6 Repair Models.- 16.7 Comparisons.- 16.7.1 Behaviour at Low Doses.- 16.7.2 "Critical Lesion" and Survival.- 17 Cell Survival in Relation to Whole Body Effects.- 17.1 General Aspects.- 17.2 Renewal Systems.- 17.3 Cell Survival in vivo.- 18 Acute Radiation Damage.- 18.1 General Aspects.- 18.2 Skin.- 18.2.1 Erythema and Related Responses.- 18.2.2 Other Photoinduced Alterations.- 18.2.3 Photoimmunology.- 18.3 Eye.- 18.4 Radiation Syndromes and Lethality.- 18.4.1 Survival.- 18.4.2 Bone-Marrow Syndrome.- 18.4.3 The Gastro-intestinal Syndrome.- 18.5 Course and Therapy of Radiation Sickness.- 18.6 Radiation Hormesis.- 18.6.1 General Aspects.- 18.6.2 Hormetic Responses.- 19 Radiation Effects and Progeny.- 19.0 Preliminary Remarks.- 19.1 Fertility.- 19.2 Prenatal Radiation Effects on the Embryo.- 19.3 Genetic Effects.- 20 Late Somatic Effects.- 20.1 Eye Cataracts.- 20.2 Radiation-induced Life-shortening.- 20.3 Cancerogenesis.- 20.3.1 General Aspects.- 20.3.2 Cancerogenesis by Optical Radiation.- 20.3.3 Cancerogenesis by Ionizing Radiation.- 21 Effects of Internal Exposure.- 21.1 Uptake and Distribution of Radionuclides.- 21.2 Dose Estimates.- 21.3 Special Actions.- 21.4 Conclusions.- 22 Radioecology.- 22.1 General Aspects.- 22.2 Optical Radiation.- 22.3 Ionizing Radiation.- 22.3.1 Natural Radiation Burden.- 22.3.1.1 Cosmic Rays.- 22.3.1.2 Terrestrial Radiation.- 22.3.2 Anthropogenic Radiation Sources.- 22.3.2.1 Nuclear Energy.- 22.3.2.2 Other Civilisatory Radiation Sources.- 22.3.3 Radioactivity Transfer in the Environment.- 23 Principles of Radiation Protection Regulations.- 23.1 Ionizing Radiation.- 23.1.1 General Comment.- 23.1.2 Concepts, Quantities and Units.- 23.1.3 General Regulations and Principles.- 23.2 Optical Radiation.- 24 Radiobiology in Radiation Therapy.- 24.1 Phototherapy.- 24.2 Tumour Therapy by Ionizing Radiation.- 24.2.1 General Aspects.- 24.2.2 Tumours as Experimental Objects in Radiation Biology.- 24.2.3 Experimental Techniques and Model Systems.- 24.3 Modifications and New Modalities in Radiation Therapy.- 24.3.1 Radiation Quality.- 24.3.2 Hyperthermia and Radiation.- 24.3.3 Combination with Chemotherapy.- Mathematical - Physical Relations.- I.1 Polar Coordinates.- I.2 Mean Pathlength in a Sphere.- I.3 The "KEPLER Problem".- I.4 Statistical Distributions. The POISSON Distribution.- I.5 LAPLACE Transforms.- I.6 Probit Transformation.- I.7 Reaction Kinetics.- Appendix II.- Biological Background.- II.1 Structure and Properties of the Genetic Material.- I1.2 Replication of DNA.- II.3 Information Processing.- II.4 The Cell Division Cycle.- I1.5 Gene Cloning.- References.

ISBN: 9783540510895
ISBN-10: 3540510893
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 444
Published: March 1990
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.39
Weight (kg): 0.64