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Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the 21st Century : Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, July 20-25 1997 - Claudine Elmerich

Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the 21st Century

Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, July 20-25 1997

By: Claudine Elmerich (Editor), Adam Kondorosi (Editor), William E. Newton (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 30th November 1997
ISBN: 9780792348344
Number Of Pages: 708

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The refinement of molecular techniques and the development of new probes of the phylogeny of diazotrophs has revealed an extreme biodiversity among the nitrogen fixers, which helps explain the role that nitrogen fixation plays in maintaining life on Earth. The most efficient ecosystems are those where the bacteria are associated with a plant in differentiated organs to benefit crop productivity. Most short-term benefit from fundamental research on nitrogen fixation is likely to result in the improvement of existing nitrogen-fixing symbiotic or associative systems. Longer-term efforts are aimed at extending the nitrogen-fixing capacity to other organisms, including transfer of the genetic information for efficient nitrogen fixation into the plant genome and using current knowledge of microbe-plant interactions to extend symbiosis to cereals and, in particular, to rice. Related challenges in sustainable agriculture and forestry include the creation of new nitrogen-fixing associations. All of these approaches were discussed at the 11th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, Paris, France, July 20-25, 1997 and covered in the present proceedings volume.

Keynote Lecture
Lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCO's) as growth hormonesp. 3
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Convener comments. Progress in nitrogenase-related researchp. 9
Complex structures of nitrogenasep. 11
Chemical models for the function of nitrogenasep. 17
Mapping the catalytic surface of A. vinelandii MoFe protein by site specific mutagenesisp. 23
Activation of iron and sulfur for nitrogenase metallocluster formationp. 27
Biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum and iron-vanadium cofactorsp. 33
Nucleotide hydrolysis and electron transfer reactions in nitrogenase catalysisp. 39
Structure of Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenasep. 43
A. vinelandii Fe protein: MgATP-induced conformational change and reduction to an all-ferrous statep. 47
New possibilities for studying mechanism of nitrogenase reaction with photodonors of electronp. 49
Requirement of NifX and other Nif proteins for in vitro biosynthesis of the ironmolybdenum cofactor of nitrogenasep. 51
Stopped-flow infra-red spectroscopy of functioning nitrogenasep. 53
CO binding to and metal ion valencies of the FeMo-cofactor in CO-inhibited nitrogenasep. 55
The Fe-only nitrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: 1. Catalytic and EPR-spectroscopic properties of the FeFe proteinp. 57
The Fe-only nitrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: 2. The FeFe-protein metal centers probed by EXAFS and Mossbauer spectroscopyp. 59
The nitrogen cycle sustained by prokaryotes: Reversing dinitrogen fixationp. 61
Crystallographic structures of nitrite reductase and its substrate bound complexp. 67
Poster Summariesp. 69
Genetics and Regulation
Convener comments. Regulation of nitrogen fixation and assimilationp. 83
Regulation of nif gene expression in free-living diazotrophs: Recent advancesp. 87
Heterocyst differentiation and nitrogen fixation in cyanobacteriap. 93
ADP-ribosylation as a regulatory mechanism for nitrogen fixationp. 97
Regulation of nitrogen fixation gene expression in rhizobia: An overviewp. 101
A new role for NtrC: Control of Klebsiella pneumoniae NifL activityp. 107
Regulatory roles of the structural homologues P[subscript II] and P[subscript z] proteins in Azospirillum brasilensep. 111
Regulation of nif gene transcription in Methanococcus maripaludisp. 115
Genetics and Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation
Convener comments. Regulation of nitrogen fixation: progress and prospects 1997p. 117
Down-regulation of the Rhizobium ntr regulatory system: A Mechanism to uncouple nitrogen fixation and assimilation in bacteroidsp. 119
The Rhizobium meliloti P[subscript II] protein affects alfalfa nodule development and mobilisation of fixed nitrogenp. 121
Molecular analysis of the glnB, amtB, glnD and glnA genes in Azobacter vinelandiip. 123
Characterization of genes involved in regulation of nitrogen fixation and ammonium sensing in Acetobacter diazotrophicus, an endophyte of sugarcane
The Azospirillum brasilense amtB gene is responsible for nitrogen regulated ammonium uptakep. 127
Regulation of nitrogen fixation in Herbaspirillum seropedicaep. 129
Posttranslational regulation of NifA activity by ammonium: The N-terminal domain of Rhodobacter capsulatus NifA is involved in ammonium controlp. 131
Enhancing nitrogen fixation gene expression by modifying the DNA-binding function of Rhizobium meliloti NifAp. 133
A two-component regulatory system ensures nifA expression in Bradyrhizobium japonicump. 135
The control of Azorhizobium caulinodans nifA expression by oxygen, ammonia and by the HF-1 like protein NrfAp. 137
Cyanobacteria and Phtosynthetic Bacteria
Signal transduction involving eukaryotic-type protein phosphorylation in Anabaena sp.PCC 7120p. 139
NtcA-mediated nitrogen control in cyanobacteriap. 141
Characterization of symbiotic Anabaena isolated from Azolla leaf cavitiesp. 143
Metabolic regulation of nitrogenase: Regulation and localization of DRAG (dinitrogenase reductase activating glycohydrolase)p. 145
Studies of the electron transport to nitrogenase in Rhodobacter capsulatusp. 147
Poster Summariesp. 149
Symbioses and Associations
Convener comments. Signalling processes in root nodule organogenesis: Introductory remarksp. 183
Rhizobium Nod factor structure and the phylogeny of temperate legumesp. 185
Nod factor-induced cell cycle activation in root cortical cellsp. 189
Role of exopolysaccharides in nodule invasion by Rhizobium melilotip. 193
Comparison of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosesp. 199
Nitrogen-fixing endophytes: Recent advances in the association with graminaceous plants grown in the tropicsp. 203
Rhizobium-Legume Symbiosis
Convener comments. Interactions in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosisp. 207
Analysis of the symbiotic role of proteins secreted by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciaep. 209
Biosynthesis and function of extracellular polysaccharides of Rhizobium leguminosarump. 211
Characterization of a high affinity binding site for NodRm factors in Medicago varia cell culture extractsp. 213
Rhizobium nodulation signals induce calcium changes and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements in plant root hairs cellsp. 215
Cytoskeletal differentiation during root nodule organogenesis, as followed by visualization of intermediate filamentsp. 217
Cell differentiation, cytoskeletal changes and nod factor internalization are correlated events in alfalfa nodulesp. 219
Actin genes and actin-binding proteins are differentially expressed in roots and root nodules in Phaseolus vulgarisp. 221
Classical and novel growth regulators acting during nodule initiationp. 223
Symbiotic suppression of the Medicago sativa plant defence system by Rhizobium meliloti oligosaccharidesp. 225
Characterization of an azorhizobial mutant with altered surface polysaccharides and affected in nodule invasionp. 227
A lectin-like glycoprotein PsNLEC-1 is absent from symbiosomes in the symbiotically defective pea mutant sym31p. 229
Small GTP-binding proteins in Lotus japonicusp. 231
Nodule specific modulation of glutamine synthetase (GS) gene expression in transgenic legumesp. 233
Regulation of the plant aspartate aminotransferase P[subscript 2] gene during nodule developmentp. 235
Poster Summariesp. 237
Plant Genetics and Symbiotic Genes
Gene discovery in legume nodulation: From soybean to Lotus japonicusp. 303
Harl, an incomplete dominant mutation in Lotus japonicus, confers aberrant root development and an unusual hypernodulation response (HNR)p. 305
Identification of broad bean genes induced in root nodules and mycorrhizal rootsp. 307
Molecular genetics of a model plant: Lupinus luteusp. 309
Transient auxin transport inhibition and localised flavonoid induction occur during the earliest stages of nodulation in white cloverp. 311
Construction of an improved genetic map of diploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using a novel linkage analysis for chromosomal regions exhibiting extreme distorted segregationp. 313
Genetic analysis of Medicago sativa nodulation genesp. 315
Genetic analysis of symbiosis mutants in Medicago truncatulap. 317
Antisense suppression of lectin genes causes a plethora of developmental abnormalities in alfalfap. 319
Genetic dissection of pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodule morphogenesisp. 321
Poster Summariesp. 323
Actinorhizal Symbiosis
Convener comments. Actinorhizal symbiosisp. 353
Distribution of Frankia spp. in soil and their hopanoid contentsp. 355
Oxygen relations in Frankia and in actinorhizal nodulesp. 357
Casuarina-Frankia symbiosis: Molecular studies of the host plantp. 359
Characterization of an effective Frankia isolate from nodules of Discaria trinervisp. 361
P alters N effects on nodulation in Alnus incana and Trifolium pratensep. 363
Poster Summariesp. 365
Associations with Grasses
Convener comments. Root associated nitrogen-fixing bacteria in retrospective and perspectivep. 373
Azospirillum-plant root associations: genetics of IAA biosynthesis and plant cell wall degradationp. 375
Regulation of nitrogen fixation and expression of nif-genes in rice by Azoarcus sp. BH72p. 377
Use of molecular methods for identification and in situ studies of diazotrophic plant colonizing bacteriap. 379
Maize colonization by Acetobacter diazotrophicusp. 381
Studies on Acetobacter diazotrophicus: Analysis of nif and related genes and contributions to sugarcane nutritionp. 383
Poster Summariesp. 385
Environmental and Physiological Factors Controlling Nitrogen Fixation
Convener comments. Factors controlling nitrogen fixation in legume nodules: Time for a rethink?p. 427
Rhizobial respiration to support symbiotic nitrogen fixationp. 429
Oxygen and the control of nodule metabolism and N[subscript 2] fixationp. 435
How bacteria find the optimal oxygen concentration for nitrogen fixationp. 441
Nodule carbon metabolism: Organic acids for N[subscript 2] fixationp. 443
Ammonium transport from the bacteroid to the plantp. 449
Regulation of N assimilation in legume nodulesp. 453
Carbon Metabolism
Regulation of carbon distribution and N[subscript 2] fixation during the symbiosis of Rhizobia with legumesp. 457
Malate metabolism and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate accumulation in bacteroidsp. 459
Insertional mutagenesis of an AAA-like gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum leads to increased levels of malate dehydrogenase and increased acetylene reduction activity by soybean nodulesp. 461
Hybrid structures of malic enzymes from Rhizobium melilotip. 463
Is nitrogenase-linked respiration regulated by osmocontractile cells in legume nodules?p. 465
Poster Summariesp. 467
Environmental Stresses
Rhizobial genes essential for acid tolerancep. 491
Mechanism of osmotic stress adaptation in Rhizobium melilotip. 493
IRR mediates cellular responses to iron stress in Bradyrhizobium japonicump. 495
Characterization of kat genes encoding catalases in Sinorhizobium melilotip. 497
Poster Summariesp. 499
Genome Structure, Taxonomy and Ecology
Genome structure in nitrogen-fixing organismsp. 541
Molecular analysis of the symbiotic replicon of Rhizobium sp. NGR234p. 549
Poster Summariesp. 551
Convener comments. Ecology and Taxonomy: Introductory remarksp. 557
Taxonomy and phylogeny of diazotrophsp. 559
Molecular approaches in microbial ecology to assess genomic diversity and stress-induced gene expression in plant-associated diazotrophsp. 571
Poster Summariesp. 577
Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry
Prospects in Agriculture
Contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to tropical agriculture: Actual and potentialp. 599
Role of biological nitrogen fixation in replenishing soil nitrogen pool in cropping systemsp. 605
Legume crop yield promotion by inoculation with Azospirillump. 609
Prospects for utilization of the root diazotrophs in agriculturep. 613
Sustainable Agriculture
Convener comments. Importance of biological nitrogen fixation in sustainable agriculturep. 615
Convener comments. How to exploit the diversity of tropical symbiosis for sustainable agriculture: Fallow legumes and rhizobia associated to wild ricep. 617
Combining three phenotypes for the rapid construction of improved inoculum strains of root nodule bacteriap. 619
New inoculant technology to meet changing legume managementp. 621
The use of nodulated and mycorrhizal legume trees for land reclamation in mining sitesp. 623
Soyabeans and sustainable agriculture: 'Prosmiscuous' soyabeans in Southern Africap. 625
Natural beneficial association of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and rice roots and its relevance to sustainable agriculturep. 627
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Montalban and Ceca growing in two contrasting soil types and subjected to dual Rhizobium-Mycorrhiza inoculationp. 629
Poster Summariesp. 630
Forestry
Convener comments. Nitrogen fixation by tropical trees and shrubsp. 667
Nodulation specificity of Aspalathus linearis subsp. linearis, a shrub tea legume indigenous to the Western Capep. 671
Selective preference for nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixing potential of indigenous rhizobia with African and Australian acaciasp. 673
Genetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia associated with Acacia mangium in its native area: North Queensland, Australiap. 675
Nitrogen fixing trees: Research tasks in physiology, symbiotic interactions and ecologyp. 677
Poster Summariesp. 679
Prospects for Agriculture
Round Table: Agriculture 2020: 8 Billion peoplep. 685
Author Indexp. 693
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792348344
ISBN-10: 0792348346
Series: Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 708
Published: 30th November 1997
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.81
Weight (kg): 1.19