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Biological Micro- and Nanotribology : Nature's Solutions - Matthias Scherge

Biological Micro- and Nanotribology

Nature's Solutions

Hardcover Published: 20th March 2001
ISBN: 9783540411888
Number Of Pages: 306

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This book is written for scientists and engineers wishing to become familiar with biological micro- and nanotribology as a new interdisciplinary field of research combining methods and knowledge of physics, chemistry, mechanics and biology. Biological micro- and nanotribology aims to gather information about friction, adhesion and wear of biological systems and to apply this new knowledge to the design of micro-electro-mechanical systems, the development of new types of monolayer lubrication, the invention of new adhesives or the construction of artificial joints. Biologists, chemists, physicists and tribologists and many other applied scientists will find this book an essential addition to their libraries. Moreover, this book also gives an introduction to the higher levels of micromechanical analysis. It will provide valuable assistance for graduate students intending to become active in interdisciplinary research.

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From the reviews:

"Their book is a valuable addition to the literature on the micromechanics of very thin films ... . The discussion is exceedingly well organized and well illustrated; many examples are provided from biological systems ... . Overall, the authors have succeeded admirably in providing and informative and thorough text, the publisher has produced an attractive book, and readers will find much material of interest ... . I recommend it to anyone who works in the area of micromechanics of friction and lubrication." (Howard A. Stone, Physics Today, June, 2002)

Basics and Physical Tools
Introductionp. 3
Physical Principles of Micro-and Nanotribologyp. 7
Fundamental Definitionsp. 7
Model Materialsp. 9
Mechanical Propertiesp. 11
Roughnessp. 11
Elastic Bodiesp. 12
Viscoelastic Bodiesp. 13
Contact Mechanicsp. 15
Adhesionp. 20
Molecular Forcesp. 23
Electrostatic Forcesp. 25
Capillary Forcesp. 28
Lubricationp. 32
Simple Liquids-Experimentsp. 33
Simple Liquids-Simulationp. 35
Water-Bulk Propertiesp. 37
Water-Molecular Film Propertiesp. 39
Lubrication and Water Film Thicknessp. 44
Solid Lubricationp. 49
Frictionp. 49
Macroscale Stick/Slipsp. 52
Microscale Stick/Slipsp. 53
Nanoscale Stick/Slipsp. 56
Stick/Slips and Sliding Velocityp. 57
Friction and Sliding Velocityp. 59
Friction versus Temperature and Humidityp. 64
Friction and Contact Geometryp. 65
Normal Force Dependencep. 68
p. 70
Wearp. 73
Microscale Wearp. 73
Nanoscale Wearp. 74
Wear of Organic Monolayersp. 74
Biological Friction Systems
Biological Frictional and Adhesive Systemsp. 79
Biological Attachmentp. 79
Systems with Reduced Frictionp. 80
Fluids and Frictionp. 80
Joints and Articular Cartilagep. 85
Muscle Connective Tissuesp. 91
Systems with Increased Frictionp. 94
Surface-Replicating Mechanisms in Plantsp. 94
Egg Filaments of Teleostean Fishp. 95
Attachment Apparatus in Hill Stream Fishp. 95
Friction in Fish Spinesp. 97
Attachment for Locomotion in Lizard Padsp. 98
Primate Skinp. 100
Frictional Surfaces of Snake Scalesp. 100
Interlock in Parasites and Plant Diasporesp. 101
p. 102
Mediators of Adhesionp. 103
Design of Adhesive Polymersp. 103
Coupling Agentsp. 104
Systems with Increased Adhesionp. 105
Cell Adhesionp. 106
Invertebratesp. 107
Byssus Adhesion in Molluscsp. 110
Tube Feet of Starfishp. 112
Transitory Adhesion of Soft-Bodied Invertebratesp. 114
Adhesion in Barnaclesp. 116
Permanent Adhesion in Insects and Spidersp. 117
Temporary Adhesion in Cladoceran Crustaceansp. 118
p. 118
p. 119
p. 121
p. 122
p. 122
Anti-adhesive Mechanismsp. 124
Plantsp. 124
Animalsp. 126
Frictional Devices of Insectsp. 129
Design Principles of Insect Attachment Devicesp. 130
Insect Cuticle: Ultrastructural Architecture of the Materialp. 131
Systems of Two Complementary Surfacesp. 133
Dragonfly Head-Arresting Systemp. 133
Wing-Locking Devicesp. 135
Insect Unguitractor Apparatusp. 137
Coxal Interlocking Mechanism in Lacewingsp. 138
Coxal Interlocking Mechanism in Jumping Cicadasp. 138
Systems of One Adaptable Surfacep. 139
Surface Characteristicsp. 141
Ultrastructural Architecture of the Pad Materialp. 143
Two Alternative Designs of Adhesive Padsp. 145
Epidermal Secretionsp. 147
Pore Canalsp. 148
Test Equipment
Microscale Test Equipmentp. 153
Microtribometerp. 153
Force Detectionp. 153
Springs for the Micronewton Rangep. 154
Ball Selectionp. 155
Interferometer-Based Tribometersp. 156
Fiber-Optics-Based Microtribometerp. 158
Bio-Microtribometerp. 161
Data Evaluationp. 163
Mechanical Microanalysisp. 164
Hardness Measurementp. 164
Scratch Testingp. 166
Contact-Angle Measurementp. 167
Profilometryp. 168
Lubrication Analysisp. 170
Accompanying Surface Science Techniquesp. 170
Photoelectron Spectroscopyp. 171
Auger Electron Spectroscopyp. 173
Infrared Spectroscopyp. 175
Low-Energy Electron Diffractionp. 176
Nanoscale Probe Techniquesp. 179
Scanning Tunneling Microscopep. 180
Operating Principlep. 180
Constant Current/Height Modep. 181
Tunnel Spectroscopyp. 182
Hydration Scanning Tunneling Microscopyp. 183
AFMp. 184
Operating Principlep. 184
Contact modep. 185
Tapping Modep. 186
Non-contact Modep. 187
Force Modulationp. 188
Selected Resultsp. 188
Forces Between Tip and Moleculep. 188
Nanoscale Friction and Wearp. 190
Nano-indentationp. 191
Microscopy Techniquesp. 193
Principles of Microscopy Techniquesp. 194
Light Microscopyp. 194
Phase-Contrast Microscopyp. 196
Interference Microscopyp. 196
Polarization Microscopyp. 197
Fluorescence Microscopyp. 197
Transmission Electron Microscopyp. 198
Scanning Electron Microscopyp. 198
Preparation Proceduresp. 200
Fixationp. 200
Embeddingp. 202
Sectioningp. 203
Histological Stainingp. 204
Histochemistryp. 204
Contrasting Technique for TEMp. 205
Critical-Point Dryingp. 206
Freeze-Dryingp. 207
p. 207
p. 208
Microscopy Methods Used in Surface Characterizationp. 209
Surface Contour in Biological Surfacesp. 210
Special Techniques for Studies on Material Designp. 212
Ultrastructural Architecture of Micro outgrowthsp. 212
Pore Canalsp. 215
Fluids Occurring in the Contact Areap. 216
Material Properties of Fibrous Compositesp. 217
Case Studies
Samples, Sample Preparation and Tester Setupp. 225
A Biological Microsystemp. 226
Sample Agingp. 228
Case Study I: Indentation and Adhesionp. 231
Measurement Procedurep. 231
Indentationp. 232
Adhesionp. 236
The Attachment Processp. 236
The Detachment Processp. 238
Adhesive Properties of the Secretionp. 239
Case Study II: Frictionp. 243
Test Setupp. 243
Resultsp. 244
Load Dependence and Friction Hysteresisp. 245
Anisotropy of Friction and Inner Structurep. 247
Case Study III: Material Propertiesp. 251
Elastic Propertiesp. 251
Viscoelastic Propertiesp. 252
Outlookp. 255
Contact Modelsp. 259
Capillary Theoryp. 261
Glossaryp. 265
List of Symbolsp. 273
Referencesp. 277
Indexp. 299
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540411888
ISBN-10: 3540411887
Series: NanoScience and Technology
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 306
Published: 20th March 2001
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 1.39

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