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Biological Magnetic Resonance : In Vivo Carbon-13 NMR - Lawrence J. Berliner

Biological Magnetic Resonance

In Vivo Carbon-13 NMR


Published: 31st January 1999
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This volume constitutes a compilation of the latest experiments and theories on a rapidly evolving and maturing field in MRI/MRS, which is the use of the stable isotope 13-C. The 13-C is used to probe the chemistry, mechanism, and function in living systems.
All the chapters are written by experts in the field who discuss topics such as `Tracer Theory and the Suitability of 13-C NMR', `Applications of 13-C to Studies of Human Brain Metabolism', etc.

`An excellent collection of review articles ... A significant compilation of the theoretical basis of emerging technologies and a summary of their successes.' Journal of the American Chemical Society `The reviews presented are diverse in nature ... continue to provide fresh analysis of the latest science ... succeed in being comprehensive in the subject areas.' Trends in Analytical Chemistry

Tracer Theory and [superscript 13]C NMR
Introductionp. 1
Overviewp. 1
Definitionsp. 3
Characteristics of a Perfect Tracerp. 9
Compartmental Modelsp. 11
Introductionp. 11
Objectives and Identifiabilityp. 11
Parameter Estimation and Goodness of Fitp. 12
Linearity and Tracer Modelsp. 13
The Basic Tracer Experimentp. 14
General Considerationsp. 14
Single Pool Modelp. 16
Multicompartmental Catenary Modelp. 18
Saturable Kinetic Processesp. 24
Condensation Reactionsp. 25
Tissue Heterogeneityp. 27
Metabolic and Isotopic Steady State, Time-Dependent Experimentp. 28
Tissue Heterogeneity Measured in Pre-Isotopic Steady Statep. 30
Fractional Enrichment in the Metabolic and Isotopic Steady-State Experimentp. 33
The [superscript 13]C NMR Experimentp. 35
Chemical Shift and Spectral Resolutionp. 35
Metabolic Perturbationp. 36
Detection Limitsp. 36
Correction for Natural Abundance Fractional Enrichmentp. 37
Subtraction of Natural Abundance Spectra in in Vivo Experimentsp. 40
Sites of Label Entry and Sampling, and Substrate Enrichmentp. 40
Fractional Enrichmentp. 45
Sensitivity and Timep. 49
Use of Reporter Moleculesp. 51
Conclusionsp. 55
Referencesp. 56
[superscript 13]C Isotopomer Analysis of Glutamate: A NMR Method to Probe Metabolic Pathways Intersecting in the Citric Acid Cycle
Introductionp. 59
The Role of the Citric Acid Cycle in Substrate Oxidationp. 60
Anaplerotic Functions of the Citric Acid Cyclep. 62
Quantitation of Glutamate Isotopomers by [superscript 13]C NMRp. 63
Relation of Glutamate Isotopomers to Multiplets in the [superscript 13]C NMR Spectrump. 64
Acquisition of the [superscript 13]C NMR Spectrump. 65
Quantitation of [superscript 13]C Fractional Enrichment by [superscript 1]H NMRp. 65
Influence of Natural Abundance [superscript 13]C on an Isotopomer Analysisp. 67
Mathematical and Computer Models: Applications for Isotopomer Analysisp. 67
The Value of Mathematical Modelsp. 68
Historical Background of Current Modeling Techniquesp. 68
The Evolution of [superscript 13]C Isotopomers in the Citric Acid Cyclep. 71
The Steady-State [superscript 13]C Isotopomer Analysisp. 75
The Nonsteady-State Analysisp. 81
The Direct C4 Analysis: A Readout of Relative Substrate Utilizationp. 84
Steady-State Analysis under Nosteady-State Conditionsp. 87
Absolute Metabolic Fluxes from [superscript 13]C Isotopomer Datap. 88
Other Considerationsp. 94
Referencesp. 95
Determination of Metabolic Fluxes by Mathematical Analysis of [superscript 13]C-Labeling Kinetics
Introductionp. 99
Approach to Analyzing Labeling Kineticsp. 101
Formulation of Modelp. 102
Numerical Methodsp. 108
Results and Discussionp. 110
Conclusionsp. 113
Referencesp. 115
Metabolic Flux and Subcellular Transport of Metabolites
Introductionp. 117
The General Utility of Dynamic-Mode [superscript 13]C NMR: Lessons from the Heartp. 118
[superscript 13]C NMR and Metabolic Activityp. 123
[superscript 13]C-Enrichment Patterns and Oxidative Metabolismp. 126
Fractional Enrichment and [superscript 13]C NMR of Metabolic Fluxp. 131
Models and Parameters of Glutamate Enrichmentp. 134
Direct Kinetic Analysis of Dynamic [superscript 13]C NMR Spectrap. 137
Metabolic Flux and Regulation from Dynamic [superscript 13]C NMR Spectroscopyp. 146
Metabolite Compartmentation Effects on [superscript 13]C Kineticsp. 149
[superscript 13]C NMR of Subcellular Transport Ratesp. 152
Summaryp. 156
Referencesp. 157
Assessing Cardiac Metabolic Rates during Pathologic Conditions with Dynamic [superscript 13]C NMR Spectra
Introductionp. 161
Dynamic [superscript 13]C NMR Spectroscopy in Paradigms of Myocardial Dysfunction: "Stunned" and "Hibernating" Myocardiump. 162
"Stunned" Myocardiump. 162
"Hibernating" Myocardiump. 166
Implications for Distinguishing Types of Dysfunctional Myocardium in the Clinical Setting: In Vivo [superscript 13]C NMRp. 167
A Strategy for Measuring TCA Cycle Flux with [superscript 13]C NMRp. 169
Dynamic [superscript 13]C NMR Spectroscopy of Glycolysis in Ischemic Preconditioningp. 172
Metabolic Changes in Ischemic Preconditioned Heartsp. 172
Attenuated Ischemic Acidosis in Preconditioned Heartsp. 173
Summaryp. 178
Referencesp. 179
Applications of [superscript 13]C Labeling to Studies of Human Brain Metabolism in Vivo
Introductionp. 181
Measurement of the TCA Cycle Rate in the Brainp. 183
A General Descriptionp. 183
Theoretical Basis of the Kinetic Modeling: Mass and Isotope Balancep. 186
Overview of Interpretation of the Data by Mathematical Modelingp. 187
Methods of Detection Currently in Use for Metabolic Studies of Brain in Vivop. 190
Mathematical Modeling: A Detailed Discussionp. 192
Description of Metabolic Flowp. 192
Equations and Procedures Used to Determine Model Parametersp. 193
Measurement of Glutamate Turnover Rate (V[superscript gt])p. 194
Determination of V[superscript x]/V[superscript tca] and V[superscript tca] and C4/C3 Labeling Time Coursesp. 194
Determination of Glutamate/Glutamine Carbon Flow (V[superscript gln])p. 195
Derivation of Secondary Parametersp. 197
Estimation of Carbon Sources for the TCA Cyclep. 198
Determination of CMR[subscript gl]p. 199
Brain Oxygen Consumptionp. 199
Quantitative Analyses of Sensitivitiesp. 199
Glucose Turnover Timep. 199
Exchange of Lactate and Pyruvatep. 201
Effects of Metabolic Intermediates and Aspartatep. 201
Rates of Influx and Efflux of Lactate and Pyruvatep. 203
Exchange Between [alpha]-Ketoglutarate and Glutamatep. 203
Pyruvate Carboxylasep. 203
Pentose Phosphate Shuntp. 205
Glucose Label Scramblingp. 205
Glutamate/Glutamine Carbon Flowp. 206
Summary of Sensitivity Analysisp. 207
Metabolic Compartmentationp. 207
Neuronal Activity and Compartmentationp. 207
Effects of Glutamate/Glutamine Compartmentation on Measured V[subscript tca]p. 208
Future of [superscript 13]C-Labeling Studies of the Brain in Vivop. 210
Referencesp. 211
In Vivo [superscript 13]C NMR Spectroscopy: A Unique Approach in the Dynamic Analysis of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Flux and Substrate Selection
Introductionp. 215
The Interaction between Major Biochemical Pathways and Reactionsp. 218
The Myoglobin Systemp. 218
The Lactate and Alanine Systemsp. 219
The Creatine Kinase Systemp. 221
The History of Cellular [superscript 13]C NMRp. 223
Post-Steady-State Analysisp. 224
The Theory of Post-Steady-State Analysisp. 226
In Vivo [superscript 13]C NMR Analysis of Substrate Selectionp. 230
Conclusionsp. 235
Referencesp. 237
Contents of Previous Volumesp. 239
Indexp. 253
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306458866
ISBN-10: 0306458861
Series: Biological Magnetic Resonance : Book 15
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 255
Published: 31st January 1999
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 1.27