This book covers all aspects of bioavailability, as related to environmental contaminants. After a discussion of the definition of bioavailability and its context, focus is placed on the role of risk assessment and bioavailability. Methods of analysis are then discussed including a range of atomic spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques for metal analysis and chromatographic approaches for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The occurrence, properties and eco-toxicity of POPs and metals in the soil/sediment environment are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the uptake of POPs and metals by plants (phytoextraction). Examples of POPs and metals in the environment are reviewed. <p> Methods to assess the bioavailability of POPs and metals in the environment are discussed. The particular approaches considered are: <ul> <li>non-exhaustive extraction techniques <li>single extraction techniques <li>sequential extraction techniques <li>use of cyclodextrin and surfactants <li>in-vitro gastrointestinal methods including physiological-based extraction test <li>the use of bioasssays including earthworms. </ul> <p> Finally, selected case studies highlight the importance of determining the bioavailability of POPs and metals.
Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols.
About the Author.
1. Contaminated Land and the Link to Human Health.
1.2 Soil Guideline Values.
1.3 Risk to Humans.
1.4 An Approach to Assess Contaminated Soils Relative to Soil Guideline Values.
2. Sample Preparation and Analytical techniques for Elemental Analysis of Environmental Contaminants.
2.2 Sample Preparation for Elemental Analysis.
2.3 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.
2.4 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.
2.5 Inorganic Mass Spectroscopy.
2.6 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy.
2.8 Hyphenated Techniques.
2.9 Comparison of Elemental Analytical Techniques.
2.10 Selected Resources on Elemental Analytical Techniques.
3. Sample Preparation and Analytical Techniques for Persistent Organic Pollutant Analysis of Environmental Contaminants.
3.2 Sample Preparation for Persistent Organic Pollutant Analysis.
3.3 Gas Chromatography.
3.4 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
3.5 Interfacing Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry.
3.6 Comparison of Persistent Organic Pollutant Analytical Techniques.
3.7 Selected Resources on Persistent Organic Pollutant Analytical Techniques.
4. Methods Used to Assess Bioavailability of Metals.
4.1 Non-Exhaustive Extraction Techniques for Metals.
4.2 Single Extraction Methods for Metals.
4.3 Sequential Extraction Techniques for Metals.
4.5 Plant Uptake.
4.6 Certified Reference Materials.
5. Methods Used to Assess bioavailability of Persistent Organic Pollutants.
5.2 Non-Exhaustive Extraction Techniques for POPs.
5.3 Earthworm Studies.
5.4 Plant Uptake.
6. Methods Used to Assess oral Bioaccessibility.
6.2 Introduction to Human Physiology.
6.3 Considerations in the Design and Development of a Simulated in vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction Method.
6.4 Approaches to Assess the Bioaccessibility of Metals.
Approaches to Assess the Bioaccessibility of Persistent Organic Pollutants.
6.6 Validity for Measuring Bioaccessibility.
7. Selected Case Studies on Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Mobility of Environmental Contaminants.
7.1 Bioavailability of Metals by Plants.
7.2 Bioaccessibility of Metals from Plants.
7.3 Bioavailability of POPs by Plants.
7.4 Bioaccessibility of POPs from Plants.
8. Recording of Information and Selected Resources.
8.2 Recording of Information in the Laboratory.
8.3 Selected Resources.
Responses to Self-Assessment Questions.
Glossary of Terms.
SI Units and Physical Constants.
Series: Analytical Techniques in the Sciences (AnTs) *
Number Of Pages: 316
Published: 1st May 2007
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.79 x 15.14 x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.46
Edition Number: 1