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Aviation Automation: The Search for a Human-Centered Approach :  The Search for a Human-Centered Approach - Charles E. Billings

Aviation Automation: The Search for a Human-Centered Approach

The Search for a Human-Centered Approach

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The advent of very compact, very powerful digital computers has made it possible to automate a great many processes that formerly required large, complex machinery. Digital computers have made possible revolutionary changes in industry, commerce, and transportation. This book, an expansion and revision of the author's earlier technical papers on this subject, describes the development of automation in aircraft and in the aviation system, its likely evolution in the future, and the effects that these technologies have had -- and will have -- on the human operators and managers of the system. It suggests concepts that may be able to enhance human-machine relationships in future systems. The author focuses on the ability of human operators to work cooperatively with the constellation of machines they command and control, because it is the "interactions among" these system elements that result in the system's success or failure, whether in aviation or elsewhere.
Aviation automation has provided great social and technological benefits, but these benefits have not come without cost. In recent years, new problems in aircraft have emerged due to failures in the human-machine relationship. These incidents and accidents have motivated this inquiry into aviation automation. Similar problems in the air traffic management system are predicted as it becomes more fully automated. In particular, incidents and accidents have occurred which suggest that the principle problems with today's aviation automation are associated with its complexity, coupling, autonomy, and opacity. These problems are not unique to aviation; they exist in other highly dynamic domains as well. The author suggests that a different approach to automation -- called "human-centered automation" -- offers potential benefits for system performance by enabling a more cooperative human-machine relationship in the control and management of aircraft and air traffic.

Dedicationp. v
Series Forewordp. ix
Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiv
Aviation Automation: Past, Present, and Futurep. 1
Statement of the Problemp. 3
The Context and Environments of Aviationp. 10
A Concept of Human-Centered Aviation Automationp. 34
The Evolution and Course of Aviation Automationp. 49
Humans and the Evolution of Industrial Automationp. 51
The Evolution of Aircraft Automationp. 65
Aircraft Automation in the Futurep. 118
Air Traffic Control and Management Automationp. 152
Future Air Traffic Control and Management Automationp. 162
The Roles of Human Operators in the Aviation Systemp. 179
Benefits and Costs of Aviation Automationp. 181
Human and Machine Roles: Responsibility and Authorityp. 201
Integration and Coupling in the Future Aviation Systemp. 212
Issues for Future Aviation Automationp. 219
Advanced and Novel Automation Concepts for the Future Systemp. 221
Requirements for Aviation Automationp. 232
Requirements for Certification of Aviation Automationp. 263
Automated Systems in Other Domainsp. 275
Some Final Thoughts and Conclusionsp. 292
Aircraft Accidents and Incidentsp. 298
Wiener and Curry Guidelines for Aircraft Automationp. 324
Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviationsp. 327
Referencesp. 337
Author Indexp. 349
Subject Indexp. 352
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780805821260
ISBN-10: 0805821260
Series: Human Factors in Transportation
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 370
Published: November 1996
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.61
Edition Number: 1