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Atmospheric Data Analysis : Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series 2 - Roger Daley

Atmospheric Data Analysis

Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series 2

Paperback Published: 25th April 1994
ISBN: 9780521458252
Number Of Pages: 472

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Atmospheric Data Analysis is intended to fill a void in the atmospheric science literature and curricula. The book is self contained, and includes topics important in several other fields outside atmospheric observation, including atmospheric dynamics and statistics. It outlines the physical and mathematical basis of all aspects of atmospheric analysis. The emphasis is on the theoretical foundation of the subject and most of the development is analytic, but many practical considerations and examples are introduced. There are numerous exercises at the end of each chapter to aid the student in comprehending the material.

"...a synthesizing text that fills a major need and that will be highly appreciated in many departments concerned with environmental analysis." American Scientist "...should be on the shelf of anyone with more than a purely selfish interest in weather prediction and related fields..." Andrew R. Solow, Journal of the American Statistical Association "...fills an essential gap in academic meteorological literature. Ample discussion of actual trends in the subject presented in the last chapter, as well as references to very recent results, protect the book against too rapid outdating. Though basically intended for graduate students, this well written and carefully edited position will certainly be a valuable aid also for more advanced professionals in various fields of atmospheric sciences." Krzysztof Haman, Pageoph

Prefacep. ix
Partial list of symbolsp. xi
Introductionp. 1
Atmospheric characteristicsp. 2
The ultimate problem in meteorologyp. 6
The observing systemp. 8
Subjective analysisp. 17
Objective analysis: first attemptsp. 19
The data assimilation cyclep. 24
Spatial analysisp. 29
Function Fittingp. 32
Local polynomial fittingp. 32
Least squares estimationp. 34
The Gram matrixp. 41
Underfitting, overfitting, and other problemsp. 45
The a posteriori analysis weightsp. 49
Multivariate function fittingp. 52
Constrained minimization: penalty functionsp. 58
Exercisesp. 62
The Method of Successive Correctionsp. 64
Basic formulation for a single correctionp. 65
The iteration cyclep. 69
Spectral response: infinite continuous networksp. 71
Spectral response: finite discrete networksp. 78
Convergence propertiesp. 86
Barnes' algorithmp. 90
Iteration to the optimal solutionp. 93
Exercisesp. 96
Statistical Interpolation: Univariatep. 98
Minimum variance estimationp. 99
The statistical interpolation algorithmp. 101
Background error covariances and correlationsp. 107
A continuous analoguep. 118
Filtering and interpolation propertiesp. 125
One, two, and multiple observation problemsp. 131
The vertical questionp. 136
Correlated observation errorp. 137
Misspecification of the background and observation error covariancesp. 143
Exercisesp. 149
Statistical Interpolation: Multivariatep. 150
The multivariate algorithmp. 150
Statistics of a homogeneous two-dimensional windfieldp. 155
The geopotential/wind covariancesp. 164
Multivariate filtering propertiesp. 169
Multivariate versus univariate analysisp. 175
A generalized algorithmp. 180
Exercisesp. 184
The Initialization Problemp. 186
Characterization of the synoptic and planetary scale motion in the atmospherep. 186
Filtered models and initialized primitive equation modelsp. 188
The benefits of initializationp. 190
A linearized shallow water modelp. 194
Initialization of the linearized shallow water modelp. 200
Geostrophic adjustmentp. 202
A brief history of initializationp. 208
Exercisesp. 210
Quasi-Geostrophic Constraintsp. 212
The Hinkelmann-Phillips modelp. 212
Initialization of the Hinkelmann-Phillips modelp. 215
Scale analysis of the primitive equationsp. 219
Quasi-geostrophic initialization of the primitive equationsp. 223
The linear balance equationp. 227
The nonlinear balance equationp. 230
The quasi-geostrophic omega equationp. 236
The quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity equationp. 238
The limitations of quasi-geostrophic initializationp. 240
Exercisesp. 241
Variational Proceduresp. 242
The stationary value of a functionp. 243
The stationary value of a definite integralp. 246
Application to atmospheric analysis problemsp. 251
Weak constraint formulationsp. 255
Inequality constraintsp. 257
Four-dimensional variational analysis: Thompson's schemep. 258
Exercisesp. 261
Normal Mode Initialization: Theoryp. 263
The linearized baroclinic primitive equationsp. 263
The vertical structure equationp. 267
The horizontal structure equationp. 270
Horizontal structure functions (Hough modes)p. 274
Normal mode form of the model equationsp. 281
The Machenhauer balance conditionp. 284
The Baer-Tribbia schemep. 288
Exercisesp. 290
Normal Mode Initialization: Applicationsp. 292
Some results from normal mode initialization experimentsp. 292
Separation of slow and fast time scalesp. 297
The slow manifoldp. 301
Normal mode and quasi-geostrophic initializationp. 306
Variational normal mode initializationp. 308
Initialization for limited area modelsp. 314
Convergence properties and diabatic initializationp. 316
Exercisesp. 321
Dynamic Initializationp. 322
Damping time integration proceduresp. 322
Application to simple modelsp. 326
Experiments with sophisticated modelsp. 329
Exercisesp. 332
Continuous Data Assimilationp. 333
The basic philosophyp. 333
Damping time integration schemesp. 338
Identical twin configurations: convergence of solutionsp. 339
The effect of nonlinearitiesp. 345
The effect of observation errorp. 348
Real data experiments: the rejection problemp. 353
The geostrophic wind correctionp. 355
Dynamic relaxationp. 357
Data assimilation on the slow manifoldp. 360
Exercisesp. 362
Future Directionsp. 363
Descent methodsp. 364
Four-dimensional variational analysisp. 369
The Kalman-Bucy filterp. 376
Initialization by Laplace transformp. 384
The bounded derivative initialization methodp. 390
Initialization of the hydrological cyclep. 391
Mesoscale data assimilationp. 394
Data assimilation in the oceansp. 399
New challengesp. 402
Exercisesp. 404
Appendicesp. 407
The normal modes of the spherical horizontal structure equationsp. 407
The effect of temporally correlated observation error on data assimilationp. 410
Four-dimensional variational analysis with a nonlinear modelp. 413
Some statistical conceptsp. 416
Classical interpolationp. 421
An iterative approach to statistical interpolationp. 425
Bessel functions and Hankel transformsp. 428
Aliasing, network design, and Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSE)p. 432
Referencesp. 439
Indexp. 455
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521458252
ISBN-10: 0521458250
Series: Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series 2
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 472
Published: 25th April 1994
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 26.04 x 18.42  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.82