For many years, the dominant fault model in automatic test pattern gen- eration (ATPG) for digital integrated circuits has been the stuck-at fault model. The static nature of stuck-at fault testing when compared to the extremely dynamic nature of integrated circuit (IC) technology has caused many to question whether or not stuck-at fault based testing is still viable. Attempts at answering this question have not been wholly satisfying due to a lack of true quantification, statistical significance, and/or high computational expense. In this monograph we introduce a methodology to address the ques- tion in a manner which circumvents the drawbacks of previous approaches. The method is based on symbolic Boolean functional analyses using Or- dered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs). OBDDs have been conjectured to be an attractive representation form for Boolean functions, although cases ex- ist for which their complexity is guaranteed to grow exponentially with input cardinality. Classes of Boolean functions which exploit the efficiencies inherent in OBDDs to a very great extent are examined in Chapter 7. Exact equa- tions giving their OBDD sizes are derived, whereas until very recently only size bounds have been available. These size equations suggest that straight- forward applications of OBDDs to design and test related problems may not prove as fruitful as was once thought.
kS FormS=k,S?k.- 7.5.5 Symmetric Functions with M-sets Integrally Divisible by a Constantc(not Divisible byc).- 7.6 Uniqueness Argument.- 7.7 OBDDs for Tree Circuits.- 7.8 OBDD Size Summary.- 8. Difference Propagation.- 8.1 The Development of Difference Propagation.- 8.2 Deriving the Input-Output Relationships.- 8.3 The Difference Propagation Algorithm.- 8.4 The Efficiency of Differences.- 8.5 Using Functional Decomposition.- 8.5.1 "Random" Decomposition.- 8.5.2 Threshold Decomposition.- 8.5.3 Minimum Circuit Width Approach.- 8.5.4 Empirical Comparison of Decomposition Techniques.- 9. Fault Model Behavior.- 9.1 Selection of Fault Models and Fault Sets.- 9.1.1 Stuck-at Fault Sets.- 9.1.2 Bridging Fault Sets.- 9.2 Fault Behavior Results and Analysis.- 9.2.1 Stuck-at Fault Behavior.- 9.2.2 Bridging Fault Behavior.- 10.The Contributions of Con/Obs to Test.- 10.1 Motivation to Study Con/Obs.- 10.2 Definitions of Con/Obs.- 10.3 Generating Con/Obs Information.- 10.3.1 Calculating Fault Controllability Functions.- 10.3.2 Calculating Fault Observability Functions.- 10.4 Con/Obs Results and Analysis.- 10.5 Con/Obs Summary.- 11.Analyzing Test Performance.- 11.1 Defect Level Motivation.- 11.2 ATPG Model Development.- 11.3 Fault Set Selectability.- 11.4 Probabilistic Non-Target Defect Coverage.- 11.5 Faults Sets.- 11.6 Test Performance Results.- 11.7 Implications to Defect Level.- 12. Conclusions.- 13.Suggestions for Future Research.- 13.1 Extensions to OBDD Size Research.- 13.2 Extensions to Difference Propagation.- 13.3 Extensions to Test Quality Research.- 13.4 Using Ordered Partial Decision Diagrams.- 13.5 General Extensions.
Series: The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science
Number Of Pages: 132
Published: 31st October 1991
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5
Weight (kg): 0.88