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Archaeology at the Millennium : A Sourcebook - Gary M. Feinman

Archaeology at the Millennium

A Sourcebook

By: Gary M. Feinman (Editor), T. Douglas Price (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 31st July 2001
ISBN: 9780306464522
Number Of Pages: 508

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Intended as a comprehensive handbook and showcase for archaeology, this work outlines where the discipline has been and where it is going at the turn of the 21st century. The topics of the chapters include the major questions in archaeology. Each chapter considers the history of research on the subject and the direction in which future work may go. The sourcebook is divided into four substantive sections, each of which is introduced by a summary statement outlining the chapters in the section. Part I deals with the history of archaeology and the advance of archaeological theory. Part II ranges over the first four million years of our evolution as a cultural species and covers the first hominids to complex hunter-gatherers. Part III concerns the origins of agriculture and features discussions of such issues as craft production, the division of labour, warfare, and the rise of social inequality. Part IV analyzes the rise of states and empires in both the Old and New worlds; the archaeology of the classical Mediterranean states is also included in this section. A final chapter portends the future of archaeology.

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From the reviews

"...this important and well-compiled source book... With its comprehensive and up-to-date bibliographies, many techical terms, and sophisticated intellectual explorations...it is an invaluable source for all archaeologists (including Classicists), and is a graduate student's treasure. This volume will become a staple of graduate seminars for years to come, and, to use the oft-used cliche, really does belong on every archaeologist's bookshelf." (Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 12:2 (2002)

"The editors are to be congratulated for obtaining a set of papers with such consistent high quality from a diverse cast of authors. Since the research standing behind the chapters is of high quality, the chapters may serve as an annotated bibliography and guide to the literature for one's own independent research. I consider this a very important contribution to our literature and a fine book for use by both undergraduates and graduate students, not to mention professionals." (Journal of Anthropological Research, 58 (2002)

Archaeology at the Millennium: Of Paradigms and Practicep. 3
Introductionp. 3
Key Research Questions and Metatheoryp. 5
The Tempo of Theoretical Changep. 6
The Larger Social Milieup. 6
Archaeology and Anthropologyp. 7
The Volumep. 7
Referencesp. 8
An Aspect of Archaeology's Recent Past and Its Relevance in the New Millenniump. 11
Introductionp. 11
Definitions and Backgroundp. 14
The Success of the Settlement Pattern Approachp. 17
The Social Context of the Rise of Settlement Pattern Researchp. 20
Settlement Pattern Studies as a Mirror of General Archaeological Trendsp. 21
Current and Future Roles of Settlement Pattern Studiesp. 23
Concluding Remarksp. 26
Referencesp. 26
First Hominids to Complex Hunter-Gatherers
Paleoanthropology at the Millenniump. 39
Introductionp. 39
Paleoanthropology of the Earliest Hominidsp. 39
General Trendsp. 40
Major Taxa and New Discoveriesp. 41
Hominid Origins and Evolutionary Patternsp. 41
Summary of Ardipithecus and the Australopithecinesp. 45
Summary of the Genus Homop. 50
Behavioral Aspects of Hominid Evolutionp. 53
The Archaeology of the Earliest Hominids: The Oldowanp. 53
The Antiquity of the Stone Agep. 54
Overview of Major Patternsp. 54
Stone Technologiesp. 54
Use of Other Raw Materials for Tools?p. 57
Who Were the Tool Makers?p. 57
Early Oldowan Sitesp. 57
Oldowan Technology and Tool Functionp. 58
Nature of the Early Sitesp. 64
Current Approaches in the Study of Early Sitesp. 66
Diet and Subsistence of Early Hominidsp. 67
Environment and Early Hominid Evolutionp. 68
Social Organization of Early Hominidsp. 69
The Rise of the Acheulean and the Spread Out of Africap. 70
New Technological Developmentsp. 70
Early Evidence of the Spread of Hominids Out of Africap. 74
Western and Central Asiap. 75
Eastern Asiap. 76
Europep. 80
General Evolutionary and Technological Trendsp. 86
Questions Regarding Behavioral and Adaptive Patternsp. 86
Controlled Use of Fire?p. 86
Architecture and Structures?p. 87
The Importance of Hunting?p. 87
Symbolic and Ritual Behaviors?p. 88
A Summary of Turning Points in Our Understandingp. 88
Time Depth of Human Prehistoryp. 88
Recency of Split with Apesp. 89
Antiquity of Bipedalism, Predating Flaked Stone Tools, and Brain Enlargementp. 89
Proliferation of Hominid Species/Bushing of the Family Treep. 90
Antiquity of Stone Toolsp. 90
Beyond Typology: Focus on Behaviorp. 90
Use of Actualistic and Experimental Studiesp. 91
Questioning Early Hominid Behavioral Modesp. 91
Predictions for the Twenty-First Centuryp. 92
140 Years Later: Taking Stockp. 95
Referencesp. 95
Fully Modern Humansp. 109
Introductionp. 109
Fossils, Genetics, and Modern Human Originsp. 110
Archaeology and Out of Africa 2p. 115
Some Problems with Out of Africa 2p. 118
What Explains the Relatively Abrupt Appearance of Modern Human Behavior (the Modern Capacity for Culture) 50,000 Years Ago?p. 120
Were Neanderthals Fundamentally Incapable of Fully Modern Behavior?p. 122
Did Neanderthals Manage to Survive in Parts of Europe for Thousands of Years After Modern People Arrived?p. 123
Why Weren't the Earliest Modern Humans as Heavily Built as the Neanderthals?p. 124
What Kind of People First Occupied the Americas and Australasia?p. 125
Was Out of Africa 2 Encouraged by a Significant Advance in Human Ability to Hunt and Gather 50,000 to 40,000 Years Ago?p. 126
Is It Really True That Modern Behavioral Markers Appeared Widely Only About 50,000 to 40,000 Years Ago?p. 127
Conclusionp. 129
Referencesp. 130
Holocene Hunter-Gatherersp. 137
Introductionp. 137
Background to the Modern Viewp. 138
Cultural Ecologyp. 140
Populationp. 140
Social Relationsp. 142
Summaryp. 144
Holocene Environmentp. 145
Holocene Technologyp. 149
Holocene Inventionsp. 149
The Bow and Arrowp. 152
Holocene Adaptive Strategiesp. 154
Foragers and Collectorsp. 154
Forager and Collector Technology and Riskp. 156
Reliability and Maintainabilityp. 157
Traveler-Processor Modelp. 164
Implications for Holocene Hunter-Gatherersp. 166
Linear Programming Models of Ethnographic Hunter-Gatherer Dietsp. 167
Storage, Sedentism, and Territorialityp. 172
Transition to Energy Maximizing in California and the Great Basinp. 181
Discussionp. 182
Implicationsp. 183
Referencesp. 186
The Transition from Hunter-Gatherers to Agricultural Villages
The Transition to Food Productionp. 199
Introductionp. 199
Closing Down or Opening Up?p. 200
Multiple Regional Mosaicsp. 202
Subregional Scales of Analysisp. 205
New Paradigmsp. 207
Genres of Explanationp. 215
The Food-Fight Theoryp. 218
"Regional Scale Between the Lines" Theoriesp. 221
Conclusionp. 226
Referencesp. 227
Richman, Poorman, Beggarman, Chief: The Dynamics of Social Inequalityp. 231
Introductionp. 231
Definitions and Conceptsp. 232
Evidence for the Evolution of Social Hierarchiesp. 234
The Lower Paleolithicp. 234
The Middle Paleolithicp. 235
The Upper Paleolithicp. 236
The Mesolithicp. 240
The Neolithicp. 241
The Major Modelsp. 244
Who Benefits?p. 246
Control of What?p. 250
Population Pressurep. 251
The Emergence of Prestige Technologiesp. 254
Aggrandizing Strategies That Workp. 258
Ownershipp. 258
Contractual Debtsp. 258
Feastingp. 258
Bride Pricesp. 259
Investment in Childrenp. 259
Prestige Itemsp. 260
Trade and Profitp. 260
Taboos, Fines, and Control in Dispute Resolutionp. 260
Warfare and Other Calamitiesp. 261
Access to the Supernaturalp. 261
Manipulation of Cultural Valuesp. 262
Separation from Othersp. 262
Payoffsp. 262
Concluding Commentsp. 265
Referencesp. 266
Craft Production Systemsp. 273
Introductionp. 273
Specializationp. 275
Production Types and Parametersp. 276
Components of Production Systemsp. 277
Identifying Production Systems in the Archaeological Recordp. 278
Producersp. 278
Specialistsp. 279
Intensityp. 280
Compensationp. 281
Skillp. 281
Artisan Identity and Social Rolesp. 282
Social Rank/Statusp. 282
Genderp. 284
Other Elements of Social Identityp. 284
Crafting as Identityp. 285
Principles of Recruitmentp. 285
Means of Productionp. 286
Raw Materialsp. 286
Raw Material Sources: Compositional Analysisp. 286
Principles of Resource Procurementp. 287
Performance Characteristics of Raw Materialsp. 287
Technologyp. 287
Technological Complexity and the Organization of Productionp. 288
Efficiencyp. 289
Output and the Organization of Productionp. 291
Control and Technologyp. 291
Technological Variation and the Organization of Productionp. 292
Organizing Principles of the Production Systemp. 292
Spatial Organization of Productionp. 293
Permanent Featuresp. 293
Manufacturing Tools and Debrisp. 294
Concentration of Production Activitiesp. 295
Social Organization of Productionp. 296
Constitution of Production Unitsp. 296
Sociopolitical Context of Production: Attached and Independent Productionp. 297
Embedded Productionp. 299
Standardizationp. 301
Objectsp. 303
Function and Meaningp. 304
Quantitative Aspects of the Demandp. 304
Mechanisms of Distributionp. 304
Consumersp. 306
Consumption Patterns and the Organization of Productionp. 306
Theory: Issues of Origins, Process, and Explanationp. 306
Political Explanationsp. 307
Economic Explanationsp. 308
The Role of Studies of Households and Middle-Range Societies in Developing New Models and Explanatory Frameworksp. 308
Household Divisions of Labor and the Development of Specializationp. 309
Divisions of Labor in Middle-Range Societies and the Development of Specializationp. 310
Summary and Conclusions: Where do We Go From Here?p. 312
Referencesp. 314
Warfare and the Evolution of Culturep. 329
Introductionp. 329
The Archaeology of War (and Peace)p. 330
The Origins of Warp. 332
War in the Neolithicp. 335
Warfare and the Development of Cultural Complexityp. 340
Conclusionsp. 342
Referencesp. 344
The Rise of Archaic States
Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old Worldp. 353
Introductionp. 353
From State Development to State Dynamicsp. 353
Variability and Heterogeneity in Early State Political Economyp. 356
Cities and Statesp. 359
State Infrastructures I: Agriculture and Herding Systemsp. 361
State Infrastructures II: Craft Productionp. 363
Exchange Economies, Interregional Interaction, and Secondary State Formationp. 366
Nagging Problems and Emerging Research Focip. 368
Referencesp. 370
State Formation in the New Worldp. 381
Introductionp. 381
Chiefdomsp. 382
Definitions of the Statep. 383
State Originsp. 384
States versus Urbanismp. 384
State Formation and Development in Mesoamericap. 385
The Gulf Coastp. 385
The Classic Period in Central Mexicop. 387
The Postclassic Period in Central Mexicop. 393
The Toltecp. 393
The Aztecp. 394
The Tarascansp. 395
The State in the Valley of Oaxacap. 396
Evolution of the State in the Maya Regionp. 398
State Emergence and Development in the Andean Regionp. 401
Mochicap. 401
Warip. 403
Tiwanakup. 404
Chimu and Inkap. 405
Concluding Remarksp. 407
Referencesp. 408
Classical Archaeology and Anthropological Archaeology in North America: A Meeting of Minds at the Millennium?p. 415
Classical Archaeology in the United States: The Present State of the Disciplinep. 415
The Width of the Great Divide in the United Statesp. 416
The Depth of the Great Divide: A Colony and Its Grandmotherp. 418
Contributions to an Anthropological Discoursep. 421
The Paleolithic and the Colonization of Europep. 421
Spread of Food Productionp. 423
Social Inequality and Processes of State Formationp. 424
The Archaeology of States and Empiresp. 429
Classical Archaeology in the Next Millenniump. 430
Referencesp. 432
Empiresp. 439
Introductionp. 439
Definitionsp. 444
Problems of Scalep. 447
Spatial Scalesp. 448
Time and Processp. 448
Scales of Interactionp. 450
Rulers and Subjectsp. 451
Imperial Elitesp. 451
Regional Elitesp. 454
Nonelitesp. 455
Imperial Consolidation and Administrationp. 456
Administration and Record Keepingp. 457
Ideologies and Identitiesp. 458
Historical Knowledge and Memoriesp. 460
Resistancep. 461
Archaeology Challenges: Horizon or Hegemony?p. 462
Conclusionsp. 464
Referencesp. 466
The Archaeology of the Futurep. 475
Introductionp. 475
The Past of Archaeologyp. 475
Current Conditionsp. 481
The Future of Archaeologyp. 485
Archaeology in the Academyp. 487
Archaeological Researchp. 489
New Perspectivesp. 490
New Methodsp. 491
Conclusionsp. 492
Referencesp. 493
Indexp. 497
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306464522
ISBN-10: 0306464527
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 508
Published: 31st July 2001
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 26.67 x 19.05  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 1.27
Edition Type: Annotated