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Aqueous Cleaning as an Alternative to Cfc and Chlorinated Solvent-Based Cleaning - Carl D. D'Ruiz

Aqueous Cleaning as an Alternative to Cfc and Chlorinated Solvent-Based Cleaning

Hardcover Published: June 1991
ISBN: 9780815512851
Number Of Pages: 126

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This book discusses the technical feasibility of aqueous cleaning as a substitute for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and chlorinated solvent cleaning in the metal and electronics industries, and, further, assesses the market prospects for this technology based on its performance characteristics and current trends in environmental regulation.

Executive Summaryp. 1
Introductionp. 4
Regulatory Developments Affecting CFCs and Chlorsolventsp. 5
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)p. 6
Methylene Chloride, Perchloroethylene, and Trichloroethylenep. 6
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methyl Chloroform)p. 6
Carbon Tetrachloridep. 7
Aqueous and Terpene Cleaningp. 7
Federal Legislative Activitiesp. 8
State Legislative Activitiesp. 9
Regulatory Implications for Producers and Consumersp. 10
Impact of CFC Substitutesp. 11
Chlorinated Solvent Cleaningp. 12
Overviewp. 12
Solvent Interactionsp. 13
Solvent End Usep. 14
Chlorosolvent Productionp. 15
Solvent Pricesp. 19
Major Chlorosolvent Usesp. 22
Major Solvent Cleaning Processesp. 23
Solvent Cleaning Machinesp. 24
Solvent Consumption By Processp. 26
Chlorinated Solvent Use in Metal Cleaning Processesp. 27
Cold Cleaningp. 27
Vapor Degreasingp. 30
Chlorinated Solvent use in the Electronics Industryp. 30
Printed Circuit Board Assembly Cleaningp. 35
Precision Cleaningp. 38
Semiconductor Cleaningp. 39
Printed Circuit Board Degreasingp. 39
Drying Printed Circuit Boardsp. 39
Aqueous Cleaningp. 40
Aqueous Chemical Cleanersp. 41
Acidic Cleanersp. 41
Emulsion Cleanersp. 41
Alkaline Cleanersp. 42
Aqueous Cleaner Additivesp. 44
Wetting Agentsp. 44
Rust Inhibitorsp. 45
Chelating Agents and Sequestering Agentsp. 45
Aqueous Cleaning Equipmentp. 46
Immersion Clearning Equipmentp. 47
Agitation Immersion Cleaning Equipmentp. 48
Ultrasonic Immersion Cleaning Equipmentp. 48
Spray Cleaning Equipmentp. 49
Batch Spray Cleaning Equipmentp. 50
Conveyorized Spray Cleaning Equipmentp. 50
Rotary Spray Cleaning Equipmentp. 51
Drying Equipmentp. 51
Oil Skimmers and Filtersp. 52
Parts Handling Automation Equipmentp. 53
Bath Maintenance Automation Equipmentp. 54
Wastewater Treatment Requirementsp. 55
Wastewater Treatment Technologiesp. 56
Oil and Greasep. 56
Dissolved Metalsp. 57
Organic Materialp. 58
pHp. 59
Suspended Solidsp. 59
Sludgep. 60
The Optimum Treatment Processp. 60
Aqueous Cleaning Configurations and Costsp. 62
Illustrative Aqueous Cleaning Configurationsp. 63
Manual Roller Conveyor Immersion Washerp. 63
Small Batch Immersion Washerp. 65
Manual Roller Conveyor Ultrasonic Washerp. 65
Conveyorized Spray Washerp. 65
Capital Costsp. 69
Operating Costsp. 69
Comparison to Solvent-Based Systemsp. 70
Aqueous Cleaning as an Alternative Process to Solvent-Based Cleaningp. 71
Technological, Market, and Implementation Feasibilityp. 71
Technological Feasibilityp. 72
Market Potentialp. 73
Implementation Barriersp. 74
Competing Alternatives for Reducing or Replacing Chlorosolventsp. 76
Conservation and Recoveryp. 76
Emerging Compoundsp. 77
Terpenesp. 78
Organic Solventsp. 78
Conclusionsp. 79
Survey Instrumentsp. 82
Aqueous Cleaner Surveyp. 82
Aqueous Cleaning Equipment Market Surveyp. 86
Survey Findingsp. 90
Aqueous Cleaning Companies, Products and Marketsp. 90
Aqueous Cleaning Survey Findingsp. 90
Aqueous Chemical Cleaner Manufactures, Products, and Marketsp. 93
Aqueous Cleaning Equipment Manufacturers, Products, and Marketsp. 100
Total Number and Types of Aqueous Cleaning Companiesp. 105
Aqueous Cleaning Equipment Sales Trendsp. 105
Feasibility of Aqueous Cleaning as Substitute for Solvent Cleaningp. 105
Emerging Aqueous Cleaning Marketsp. 106
Estimates of Aqueous Cleaning Market Opportunitiesp. 107
Wastewater Treatment Technologiesp. 114
Oil and Grease Treatment Techniquesp. 114
Gravity Separationp. 114
Dissolved Air Flotationp. 114
Coalescingp. 115
Chemical Treatmentp. 115
Organic Material Treatment Techniquesp. 116
Carbon Adsorptionp. 116
Sludge Treatment Techniquesp. 118
Gravity Sludge Thickeningp. 118
Pressure Filtrationp. 118
Vacuum Filtrationp. 119
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780815512851
ISBN-10: 0815512856
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 126
Published: June 1991
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 26.21 x 18.19  x 1.68
Weight (kg): 0.58