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Anxiety Disorders and Phobias : A Cognitive Perspective - Aaron T. Beck

Anxiety Disorders and Phobias

A Cognitive Perspective


Published: 29th June 2005
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At the forefront of the cognitive revolution, renowned psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck turned to information processing in order to understand the sources, consequences, and cures of anxiety disorders and phobias. In the first half of this classic text, Beck elaborates on the clinical picture of anxiety disorders and phobias and presents an explanatory model to account for the rich complexity of these phenomena. Cognitive psychologist Gary Emery then details the therapeutic principles, strategies, and tactics developed on the basis of the cognitive model of anxiety disorders and phobias. This fifteenth anniversary edition of the foundational work on cognitive therapy features a new introduction by Beck, in which he offers an up-to-date appraisal of the current state of cognitive therapy and its application to the treatment of phobias and anxiety.

Preface to the 2005 Editionp. xv
Preface to the 1985 Editionp. xxxi
Theoretical and Clinical Aspects
Turning Anxiety on Its Head: An Overviewp. 3
The Paradox of Anxiety
Changing Concepts of Anxiety
Distinguishing Anxiety, Fear, Phobias, and Panic
Anxiety and Fear
Phoblas and Panic Attacks
"Realistic" and "Unrealistic" Fears
Hoch's Paradox
Future Danger and Present Danger
The Function of Anxiety
Adaptational Aspects
Anxiety as a Strategy in Response to Threat
Survival Mechanisms
Defensive Patterns
Symptoms and Their Significancep. 19
Symptoms and Symptoms
Symptoms and Functions
Major Reactions: Mobilization, Inhibition, Demobilization
Free-Floating Anxiety-Fact or Artifact?
Normal Versus Pathological Anxiety
Thinking Disorder in Clinical Anxiety
Attention, Concentration, and Vigilance
"Alarm System" and "Automatic Thoughts"
Loss of Objectivity and of Voluntary Control
Stimulus Generalization
Selective Abstraction and Loss of Perspective
Dichotomous Thinking
Lack of Habituation
Classification of Anxiety Disorders
Panic Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Atypical Anxiety Disorder
Phobic Disorders
Social Phobia
Simple Phobia
The Cognitive Model of Threat Reactionsp. 37
The Role of Context
Primary Appraisal
Secondary Appraisal
Estimate of Danger
Hostile Response
The Nature of Cognitive Processing
The Relation of Behavioral Activation and Inhibition to Motivation
Distinguishing Between Behavior and Emotions
The Vicious Cycle
Primal Responses to Threat
The Anergic and the Energic Systems
Changes in Cognitive Content and Physiological Reactions
The Relation of Anxiety to Other Defensive Responses
Cognitive Structures and Anxiogenic Rulesp. 54
Cognitive Schemas
The Function of Cognitive Set
The Continuous Cycle
The Modes
Syndromes and Modes
Assumptions, Rules, and Formulas
Rules in Problematic Situations
Rules in Anxiety Disorders
Vulnerability: The Core of Anxiety Disordersp. 67
The Concept of Vulnerability
The Role of Skill Deficits
The Role of Context and Experience
Interference With Effective Performance
Catastrophic Predictions and Vicious Cycles
The "Function" of Dysfunctional Behaviors
Physical Danger
Psychosocial Danger
The Domains of Vulnerability
Sectors of the Domain
Threats to the Domain
Threats to Sociality
Threats to Individuality
Specific Fears
Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorderp. 82
General View of the Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
Biological Studies
Precipitating Psychological Factors
Interaction of Precipitating Factors with Previous Problems
Do Cognitions Cause Anxiety Disorders?
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Types of Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Specific Fears
Self-Concept in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Self-Criticism in Anxiety and Depression
The Differences Between Anxiety and Depression
Panic Disorder
Meaning of Panic Attacks
Functional Analysis of Panic Attacks
Precipitation of Panic Attacks
Simple Phobiasp. 115
Definition of Phobia
Differentiating Phobias From Fears
The Refractoriness of Phobias
Content of Fears and Phobias
Traumatic Phobias
Fixation Phobias
Specific Phobias
The Meanings of Phobias
Multiple PhobIas: Conceptual Continuity
Relation of Fears to Phobias
Self-Confidence Versus Vulnerability
Dual Belief Systems
Visual Images
Identification with "Victim"
Evolution, Rules, and Phobias
The Agoraphobic Syndromep. 133
The Riddle of Agoraphobia
The Development of Agoraphobia
Predisposition and Precipitation
Onset of Symptomatology
Attribution of Causality in Panic Attacks
Cognitive Set: Vulnerability
A Synthesis
The Evaluation Anxietiesp. 146
The Essence of Evaluation Anxieties
Before the Fall
Common Features of Evaluative Threats
Status and Ranking Order
Rules and Formulas
Automatic Protective Reactions
Social Phobias and Social Activities
Paradoxes of Social Anxiety
The Fear of Being Evaluated
The Primal "Defenses"
Differentiating Social Phobia from Agoraphobia
Situations That Provoke the Phobic Symptoms
Somatic Symptoms
The Phenomena of Social Anxiety
Shame and "Social Image"
Fear of Loss of Love or Abandonment
Public-Speaking Anxiety
Test Anxiety
A Synthesis
Cognitive Therapy: Techniques and Applications
Principles of Cognitive Therapyp. 167
Cognitive Therapy Is Based on the Cognitive Model of Emotional Disorders
Didactic Presentation
Introducing Cognitive Therapy
Levels of Fear
Cognitive Therapy Is Brief and Time-Limited
A Sound Therapeutic Relationship Is a Necessary Condition for Effective Cognitive Therapy
Therapy Is a Collaborative Effort Between Therapist and Patient
Cognitive Therapy Uses Primarily the Socratic Method
Cognitive Therapy Is Structured and Directive
Cognitive Therapy Is Problem-Oriented
General Strategies
Cognitive Therapy Is Based on an Educational Model
Learning to Learn
The Theory and Techniques of Cognitive Therapy Rely on the Inductive Method
Homework Is a Central Feature of Cognitive Therapy
Strategies and Techniques for Cognitive Restructuringp. 190
Developing Self-Awareness
Directing Patients
Strategies and Techniques
Counting Automatic Thoughts
Three Basic Approaches
What's the Evidence?
What's Another Way of Looking At It?
So What if it Happens?
Modifying Imageryp. 210
Induced Images
Delineating Maladaptive Patterns
Pinpointing Cognitive Distortions
Modification of Induced Images
Techniques for Modifying Images
Turn-Off Technique
Time Projection
Symbolic Images
Decatastrophizing the Image
Images and Thoughts
Facilitating Change in Induced Images
Substituting Positive Imagery
Substituting Contrasting Imagery
Coping Models
Imagery to Reduce Threat
Escaping a Worse Alternative
Mixed Strategy
Future Therapy
Goal Rehearsal
Modifying the Affective Componentp. 232
Accepting the Feelings
Reducing Anxiety About Anxiety
Reducing Shame About Showing Anxiety
Normalizing Anxiety
Active Acceptance
Identifying Emotions
Action Strategies
Activity Schedules
Increasing Tolerance for Anxiety
Alcohol, Stimulants, Diet, Stress
Maladaptive Coping Behavior
Positive Self-Instruction
Graphs and Diaries
Concentration (or Distraction) Exercises
Relaxation Methods
Emotional Review
Imagery Methods
Repeated Review Outside the Office
Owning One's Emotions
Sequential Reasoning
Correlational Reasoning
Analogical Reasoning
Emotional Reasoning
The Payoff
Modifying the Behavioral Componentp. 258
Identifying Protective Mechanisms
Explaining the Therapeutic Approach to the Patient
Blocks to Learning
Educational Devices
Futility of Self-Protection
Graded Steps or a Gradual Approximation
Aids to Exposure
Initiation Technique
Behavioral Rehearsal
The Use of Significant Others
Technical Aids
Cognitive Avoidance
The Critical-Decision Technique
Task Orientation
Behavioral Thought
The "As If" Technique
Shame and Other Feared Experiences
Developing Self-Confidence
Doing the Unexpected
Making a Mistake Part of the Show
Restructuring a Patient's Assumptions and Major Issuesp. 288
Identifying Assumptions
Major Issues
Identifying Major Issues
Positive and Negative Reinforcers
Psychological Double
Development of Major Concerns
Motivation and Major Concerns
Postscriptp. 313
Appendix Ip. 315
Appendix IIp. 323
Referencesp. 325
Indexp. 333
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780465005871
ISBN-10: 046500587X
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 384
Published: 29th June 2005
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 15.7 x 23.4  x 2.6
Weight (kg): 0.41
Edition Number: 1