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Analyzing the Labor Force : Concepts, Measures, and Trends - Clifford C. Clogg

Analyzing the Labor Force

Concepts, Measures, and Trends

Paperback Published: 31st December 2001
ISBN: 9780306465376
Number Of Pages: 272

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With the passing of Clifford Collier Clogg at the age of 45 on May 7th 1995, the world lost a talented sociologist, demographer, and statistician all at once. In addition to being a considerable talent in each of these three disciplines, and perhaps more importantly, Cliff was the type of person who brought to­ gether diverse elements and scholars from all three. Cliff was also a consum­ mate mentor, nurturing ideas and students and always striving to bring out the best in both. Perhaps nothing illustrates the stature, impact, and respect others held for Cliff more than the fact that never before-and never since­ has an individual been honored at the time of his death with ceremonies from the national associations of all three of these disciplines. The purpose of this book is to introduce to a broad constituency of social scientists and their students some of the basic ideas in the study of the labor force that Cliff and his colleagues had grappled with. At the time of Cliff's death, he was perhaps better known for his methodological contributions to sociology and demography than he was for his substantive contributions to the study of social stratification and the labor force. Our goal is to highlight Cliff's substantive contributions to sociology and demography by telling the cumulative story of his research and adding updated analysis that advances the story beyond the early 1980s to the mid-1990s.

Introductionp. 1
Why Study Labor Force Activity at All?p. 3
A Basic Introduction to the Issues Examined in This Bookp. 6
The Labor Utilization Frameworkp. 6
Characterizing the Class Organization of Labor Market Opportunityp. 8
Trends in Labor Force Activityp. 9
Social Mobility and Socioeconomic Attainmentsp. 11
Trends through the Mid-1990sp. 12
A Future Research Agenda for the Study of Labor Marketsp. 13
Notesp. 13
The Uses and Transformations of the Labor Utilization Framework
An Introduction to the Labor Utilization Frameworkp. 15
Introductionp. 15
The Labor Utilization Frameworkp. 17
A Critique of the Labor Utilization Frameworkp. 20
A Latent Class Perspective for the Analysis of the Work Forcep. 23
Simple Latent Structures Applied to the 1970 Datap. 24
A Simpler Latent Class Structurep. 26
Time-Period Change in the Labor Force Viewed from the Latent Class Perspectivep. 28
Decomposing Observed Underemployment into Component Parts Due to the Different Labor Force Classesp. 29
Notesp. 30
Measuring Underemployment with the Current Populations Surveyp. 32
Additional Analysesp. 41
Model Derivationp. 42
The Latent Structure Modelp. 43
Trends in Labor Force Activity
Analyzing Trends in Labor Force Activityp. 45
Introductionp. 45
Labor Force Composition and Underemployment Trends, 1969-1980p. 46
The Record of Annual Changes in U.S. Underemployment, 1969-1980p. 47
Trends by Genderp. 48
Trends by Agep. 49
Trends by Racep. 52
The Relative Effects of Demographic and Other Temporal Changes on Aggregate Underemploymentp. 53
The Basic Hypothesisp. 54
Results for Specific Demographic Groupsp. 54
Discussionp. 56
What Can Cohort Analysis Tell Us about Recent Trends in Labor Force Participation?p. 57
A Model with Age-Period Interactionp. 59
Resultsp. 59
Indices of Fitp. 59
Estimated Cohort Effectsp. 60
How Cohort Effects "Translate" the Observed Period Changep. 60
Period Shocks on Participation for Young and Old Age Groupsp. 62
Discussionp. 65
Should Underemployment Rates Be Adjusted?p. 66
Compositional Change from 1970 to 1980: An Overviewp. 67
Compositional Change as a Component of Overall Temporal Changep. 69
Composition-Adjusted Ratesp. 72
Summary and Discussionp. 76
Acknowledgmentsp. 77
Notesp. 77
Estimating Log-Linear Modelsp. 79
Decompositions of L[superscript 2] in Models of the Relationship between Age (A), Gender (G), Race (R), LUF (L), and Period (P)p. 80
Rationale for and Definitions of Low Income and Educational Mismatch Components of the LUFp. 81
SPSS Control Cards for Determining Educational Mismatch: 1970 Census Occupation Codesp. 85
A Rationale for Cohort Analysis of Labor Force Participationp. 86
Age--Period--Cohort Modelsp. 88
Choosing Identifying Restrictionsp. 91
Rate Adjustment Techniques Based on the Log-Linear Modelp. 92
Social Mobility, Socioeconomic Attainment and Labor Force Issues
Latent Class Models in the Analysis of Social Mobilityp. 95
Introductionp. 95
Modeling Social Mobility--What Researchers Want to Knowp. 96
Modeling Social Mobility--What Researchers Have to Work withp. 97
The Datap. 99
Two-Class Modelsp. 100
Three-Class Modelsp. 103
Some Restricted Latent Structuresp. 104
A Two-Class Quasi-Latent Structure Indices of Fitp. 105
Parameter Estimates from the Quasi-Latent Structurep. 105
The Prediction of Membership in Latent Classes and Latent Status Classesp. 106
Conclusionp. 109
Notesp. 110
The Latent Structure Approach to the Analysis of Mobility Tablesp. 111
Analyzing the Relationship between Annual Labor-Market Experiences and Labor-Force Positions: A Modification of the Labor Utilization Frameworkp. 119
Introductionp. 119
Labor-Market Experience Categoriesp. 120
Labor-Force Positions (Current Status)p. 122
Labor-Market Experiences and Labor-Force Outcomes in a Recessionp. 123
Outflow Ratesp. 124
Inflow Ratesp. 126
A Model for Associationp. 127
The Matching Process Summarized by Association Modelsp. 128
Goodness of Fit and Strength of Associationp. 128
Interpretation of Score Parametersp. 130
Geometric Representation of the Contingencyp. 131
Further Analyses of the Matching Process: Persistence, Change, and Structurep. 133
A Simple Trichotomy for Labor-Market Experiencesp. 133
Inflow and Outflow Rates Based on the Trichotomous Labor Force Experience Measurep. 133
Stability and Change in Labor-Market Experiences over Timep. 136
Stability/Instability by Sex, Ethnicity, Age, Occupation, and Industryp. 137
Summary: Structural Persistence versus Change in the New Matrixp. 140
Summary and Discussionp. 141
Notesp. 142
Variables in the Current Population Survey Used to Measure Categories of Labor-Market Experiencesp. 144
Additional Notes on Model Estimationp. 146
Disaggregation of the 1981-82 Association by Sex and Agep. 147
Loss of Structural Information by Condensingp. 148
Labor-Force Behavior and Its Influence on Status and Wage Attainmentsp. 151
Introductionp. 151
Labor-Force Measures Added to Occupational Attainment Modelsp. 152
Menp. 152
Womenp. 156
Summarizing Our Results So Farp. 157
Adding New Scales to Prior Analyses of Labor-Market Stratificationp. 158
Adding the New Scales to Standard Attainment Modelsp. 158
Occupational Statusp. 159
Log-Earningsp. 160
Discussionp. 163
Notesp. 164
A Brief Note on Causal Orderp. 166
Recent Analyses of Labor Force Trends Using the Labor Utilization Framework
Market Experiences and Labor-Force Outcomes: Fifteen Years of Race and Gender Inequality, 1982-1996p. 167
Introductionp. 167
Market experiences and Inequality in Labor Force Outcomesp. 169
Observed Trends in Labor Force Outcomesp. 172
Decomposing the Experience-Outcome Associationp. 178
Market Experiences of Race--Gender Groupsp. 181
Equalizing Market Experiences Across Race--Gender Groupsp. 184
Comparing Observed and Purged Distributionsp. 185
Discussion and Conclusionsp. 197
Notesp. 199
Models and Methodsp. 200
Partitioning of the Likelihood Ratio Statistic Into Race-Sex Group and Time Period Homogeneity and Heterogeneityp. 204
A Method for Calculating Influence Measuresp. 206
Annual Percentage Distributions of Labor Market Experiences by Race-Sex Groupsp. 211
Calculating Inequality Kappasp. 215
Occupations, Labor Markets, and the Relationship between Labor-Market Experiences and Labor-Force Outcomesp. 217
Introductionp. 217
Descriptive Results for Labor Force Outcomesp. 218
Analyzing the Experience--Outcome Relationship across Occupationsp. 224
Equalizing Market Experiences across Occupationsp. 227
Discussion and Conclusionsp. 238
Notesp. 240
A Future Research Agenda
Toward a More Complete Understanding of Labor-Markets and Stratificationp. 241
Potential Improvements and a Future Research Agendap. 244
Policy Recommendations that Result from Studies of the Labor Forcep. 247
Notesp. 251
Referencesp. 253
Indexp. 263
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306465376
ISBN-10: 030646537X
Series: Plenum Studies in Work and Industry
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 272
Published: 31st December 2001
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.24  x 1.65
Weight (kg): 0.43