In the last few years, there has been an enormous amount of activity in the study of analogy and metaphor. This is partly because of an interest of artificial intelligence researchers in simulating learning processes using analogy. It also arises from critical examinations of standard theories in the philosophy of language, with their inbuilt literal/meta- phoric distinction. This volume consists of recent previously unpub- lished work in this area, with a particular emphasis upon the role of analogies in reasoning and, more generally, their role in thought and language. The papers are contributed by philosophers, computer scientists, cognitive scientists and literary critics. Researchers in these fields whose focus is the study of analogy and metaphor will find much of interest in this volume. These essays can also serve as an introduction to some of the major approaches taken in the investigation of analogy. As noted, this volume brings together the work of researchers in several different disciplines. The various approaches taken with respect to the understanding of analogy tend to be rather different, however, the articles suggest a common conclusion.
Analogy and metaphor pervade thought and language; their close investigation thus constitutes a valuable contribution to our understanding of persons. DAVID H. HELMAN Case Western Reserve University vii PART I CONCEPTUAL AND CATEGORICAL THEORIES OF ANALOGICAL UNDERSTANDING MARK TURNER CATEGORIES AND ANALOGIES I want to pursue the following claims: The way we categorize helps explain the way we recognize a statement as an analogy.
I / Conceptual and Categorical Theories of Analogical Understanding.- Categories and Analogies.- Some Constraints on Embodied Analogical Understanding.- Metaphorical Style as Message.- II / Computational and Cognitive Theories of Analogical Reasoning.- Analogy - From a Unified Perspective.- Dimensions of Analogy.- Analogical Transfer: Processes and Individual Differences.- Abstraction-Based Analogical Inference.- Viewing Metaphor as Analogy.- Combining Analogies in Mental Models.- Arguing by Analogy in Law: A Case-Based Model.- III / Logical and Probabilistic Theories of Analogical Reasoning.- Determination, Uniformity, and Relevance: Normative Criteria for Generalization and Reasoning by Analogy.- Analogy by Similarity.- Analogy and Similarity in Scientific Reasoning.- Inductive Analogy by Similarity and Proximity.- IV / Analogy and Information Processing: Perspectives of the Philosophy of Science.- Theories, Family Resemblances and Analogy.- Hypothesis Formation Using Part-Whole Interrelations.- Analogical Information Processing within Scientific Metaphors.- Analogies Hard and Soft.- Index of Names.- Index of Subjects.
Series: Synthese Library (Hardcover)
Number Of Pages: 428
Published: 31st July 1988
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.33 x 15.7
Weight (kg): 0.82