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An Invitation to Cognitive Science : Language - Lila R. Gleitman

An Invitation to Cognitive Science

Language

By: Lila R. Gleitman (Editor), Mark Liberman (Editor)

Paperback

Published: 16th October 1995
For Ages: 18+ years old
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"An Invitation to Cognitive Science" provides a point of entry into the vast realm of cognitive science, offering selected examples of issues and theories from many of its subfields. All of the volumes in the second edition contain substantially revised and as well as entirely new chapters. Rather than surveying theories and data in the manner characteristic of many introductory textbooks in the field, "An Invitation to Cognitive Science" employs a unique case study approach, presenting a focused research topic in some depth and relying on suggested readings to convey the breadth of views and results. Each chapter tells a coherent scientific story, whether developing themes and ideas or describing a particular model and exploring its implications. The volumes are self contained and can be used individually in upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses ranging from introductory psychology, linguistics, cognitive science, and decision sciences, to social psychology, philosophy of mind, rationality, language, and vision science.

List of Contributors
Foreword
The Study of Cognition
The Cognitive Science of Language: Introduction
The Invention of Language by Children: Environmental and Biological Influences on the Acquisition of Language
Uniformity of Learning
Milestones of Normal Development
Altering the Learning Environment
Changing the Learner's Mental Endowment
Every Learner Is an Isolate
Conclusions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
References
The Case of the Missing Copula: The Interpretation of Zeroes in African-American English
The General Problem of Cognitive Science: Extending Direct Perception by Inference
The Surface of Language and What Lies Underneath
A Sociolinguistic Approach to Linguistic Zeroes
The Case of the Missing Copula
Inherent Variation of the Copula
Variable Copula in Sounding
Searching for an Explanation
A Solution to the Problem
Evidence of Phonetic Conditioning
Quantitative Confirmation
The Opposing Effects of the Phonetic Environment
Experimental Approaches to the Cognitive Status of the Copula
A Deep Difference: The Case of Stressed Been
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
Exercise
References
The Sound Structure of Mawu Words: A Case Study in the Cognitive Science of Speech. Mark Liberman
Introduction
Words in Mawu
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
References
Exploring Developmental Changes in Cross-Language Speech Perception
Speech Perception Sensitivities in Very Young Infants
Early Effects of the Language Environment
Problems for the Maintenance View
A New Approach: Functional Reorganization
Residual Problems for the Functional Recorganization Hypothesis
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
Questions for Further Thought
References
Why the Child Holded the Baby Rabbits: A Case Study in Language Acquisition
Introduction: The Creativity of Language Users
Overregularization: A Case Study of Grammatical Creativity
The Course of Rule Development
Explaining Rule Development Is Not So Easy
A Simple Explanation of Overregularization--That Works
Evidence for the Blocking-Plus-Retrieval-Failure Theory
Past Tense Overregularization and Connectionist Modeling
Testing Rules Versus Analogies
Conclusions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
References
Language Acquisition
Introduction
Modularity
Human Uniqueness
Language and Thought
Learning and Innateness
The Biology of Language Acquisition
Evolution of Language
Dissociations between Language and General Intelligence
Maturation of the Language System
The Course of Language Acquisition
Explaining Language Acquisition
Learnability Theory
What Is Learned
Input
Positive Evidence
Negative Evidence
Motherese
Prosody
Context
What and When Children Learn
The Child's Language-Learning Algorithm
Extracting Simple Correlations
Using Prosody
Using Context and Semantics
Acquisition in Action
Bootstrapping the First Rules
The Organization of Grammar as a Guide to Acquisition
Parameter-Setting and the Subset Principle
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
References
Speaking and Misspeaking
Studying Slips of the Tongue
The Freudian Approach
A Cognitive Science Approach
Kinds of Slips
Word Errors and the Building of Sentences
Semantic and Phonological Relations in Word Errors
Phonological Errors
Word and Sound Errors and Linguistic Creativity
Conclusions--Slips and Cognitive Science
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
Question for Further Thought
References
Comprehending Sentence Structure
From Word String to Sentence Meaning
Deducing Structure
Empty Categories
Ambiguity
Anticipating ECs
Using Linguistic Information
Are Empty Categories Real?
Linguistic Explanations
Experimental Evidence
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
Questions for Further Thought
References
Computational Aspects of the Theory of Grammar
Introduction: Grammar and Computation
Competence and Performance
The Anatomy of a Processor
Some Surprising Properties of Natural Grammars
Constituents, Interpretations, and Rules
Well-behaved Constructions
Coordination, Parentheticals and Intonation Structure
Constituency and Performance
Computational Theories of Grammar
The Context-Free Core
Bounded Constructions
Unbounded Constructions
Turning the Problem Upside-down
Constituents and Fragments
A Lexical Grammar for a Fragment of English
Implications for the Theory of Competence
Implications for the Theory of Performance
Concluding Observations
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problem
Question for Further Thought
References
The Forms of Sentences
Syntactic Structure
Deep and Surface Structure
A Case Study: Interrogative Inversion
Further Evidence: Negative Sentences
VP Deletion
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
References
Lexical Semantics and Compositionality
How Might One Approach the Question "What Are Meanings?"
Compositionality
Two Useful Strategies
Montague's Legacy
Case Study I. Adjective Meanings
Groundwork: Internal Structure of NPs: Syntax and Semantics
The Semantics of Adjectives
The Intersection Hypothesis
Nonintersective Adjectives
Nonsubsective Adjectives
Adjectives as Functions
Case Study 2: Vagueness, Context-Dependence, and Point of View
Vagueness and Context-Dependence
Context-Dependence and Point of View
Compounds Versus Modifiers and the Limits of Compositionality
Case Study 3: Meaning Shifts
Type-Shifting and Meaning-Shifting Principles
Natural Functions
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
Questions for Further Thought
References
Semantics
Semantical Relations
Knowledge of Meaning as Knowledge of Truth-Conditions
Compositionality
The Study of Meaning: Model-Theoretic Semantics
Semantical Properties
Directional Entailingness
Conservativity
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
References
Brain Regions of Relevance to Syntactic Processing
The Clinical Material
Sentences That Aphasic Patients Have Difficulty Understanding
Some Initial Characterizations
The Extent of the Syntactic Breakdown in Broca's Aphasia
The Trace Deletion Hypothesis
Trace-Deletion-Hypothesis Updates
Processing Disruptions in Aphasic Comprehension
Dissociations between Comprehension and Grammatical Judgment
Priming and Gap-Filling
Gap-Filling in Aphasia
Concluding Remarks
Wernicke's Aphasia and Functional Localization
Broca's Aphasia and Functional Localization
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
Question for Further Thought
References
Some Philosophy of Language
Suggestions for Further Reading
Problems
References
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780262650441
ISBN-10: 0262650444
Series: Bradford Books : Book 1
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 18+ years old
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 486
Published: 16th October 1995
Publisher: AMITY PUB CO
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.81 x 15.37  x 2.87
Weight (kg): 0.78
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised