This radical revision of Professor Bullen's acclaimed and widely used text provides an introduction to modern seismological theory, with emphasis on both the physical models and the mathematical descriptions of earthquakes and their sources. The essential core of the earlier editions has been retained, particularly the tensor treatment of elasticity, seismic wave travel-time analysis and density in the Earth, although these parts of the text have been brought up to date and expanded. The new part of the book reflects on how the study of earthquakes, seismic waves and seismic risk has been broadened in the past two decades. Thus, this edition includes introductory theory of earthquake sources, seismic wave travel through complex geological zones and viscous and anisotropic media, vibrations of the whole Earth, strong-motion seismology and earthquake prediction and risk. There is an emphasis on statistical and numerical procedures and problems of resolution in inverse theory. Modern class exercises are to be found throughout. The book assumes some background in classical physics and mathematics, including simple differential equations, linear algebra and probability theory. It will be suitable for use in undergraduate courses in geophysics, applied mechanics and geotechnology and for graduate courses in seismology and earthquake engineering. In addition, it will serve as a reference text on seismological problems for professionals concerned with earthquakes, Earth structure and wave motion.
"...an excellent new and updated edition. It wouldn't surprise me if this in turn remains a standard text for many years to come." Geological Magazine "...fills a critical gap in the current literature and will be widely welcomed." Earthquake Spectra
Preface | p. xv |
The scope of seismology | p. 1 |
Early history | p. 1 |
Developments from 1915 to 1960 | p. 4 |
The period since 1960 | p. 6 |
Seismology and nuclear explosions | p. 6 |
Standard global recording | p. 7 |
Computers and complexity | p. 9 |
Extra-terrestrial seismology | p. 10 |
The plan of this book | p. 13 |
Elasticity theory | p. 15 |
Analysis of stress | p. 15 |
The stress tensor | p. 16 |
Symmetry of the stress tensor | p. 18 |
Use of the Kronecker delta [delta][subscript ij] and alternating tensor [epsiv][subscript ijk] | p. 19 |
The stress quadric | p. 20 |
Elastodynamic equations of motion | p. 21 |
Infinitesimal strain | p. 21 |
The rotation tensor | p. 23 |
The strain tensor | p. 23 |
Cubical dilatation | p. 25 |
The equation of conservation | p. 26 |
Curvilinear coordinates | p. 27 |
Perfect elasticity | p. 28 |
Stress-strain relations for a perfectly elastic isotropic material | p. 28 |
Equations of motion in terms of displacement | p. 30 |
Some perfectly elastic substances | p. 31 |
Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio | p. 32 |
Energy in a perfectly elastic body | p. 33 |
Theorems on elastic equilibrium | p. 36 |
Solving problems in elasticity | p. 38 |
Non-isotropic materials and transverse isotropy | p. 39 |
Departures from perfect elasticity due to time effects | p. 40 |
Fluid viscosity | p. 41 |
Kelvin-Voigt model | p. 42 |
Elastic afterworking | p. 43 |
Maxwell model | p. 44 |
Strength of a solid | p. 45 |
Solids and fluids | p. 46 |
Finite-strain theory | p. 47 |
Exercises | p. 48 |
Vibrations and waves | p. 51 |
Vibrations of systems with one degree of freedom | p. 51 |
Simple harmonic motion | p. 51 |
Damped vibrations | p. 51 |
Forced vibrations | p. 53 |
The delta function | p. 54 |
Green's function | p. 55 |
Vibrations of systems with more than one degree of freedom | p. 58 |
Eigen-vibrations of systems with finite freedom | p. 58 |
Rayleigh's principle | p. 60 |
Particles on an elastic string | p. 60 |
Vibrations of continuous systems | p. 61 |
Seismological considerations | p. 63 |
Plane waves | p. 64 |
Fourier's integral theorem and spectra | p. 65 |
Simple harmonic plane wave | p. 66 |
Vector waves. Polarisation | p. 67 |
Standing waves | p. 69 |
Dispersion of waves | p. 69 |
Energy in plane wave motion | p. 72 |
Propagation of plane waves in a general direction | p. 73 |
The wave equation | p. 73 |
Case of spherical symmetry | p. 74 |
General solution | p. 74 |
Ray theory | p. 75 |
Two-dimensional wave motion | p. 76 |
Scattering | p. 79 |
Diffraction | p. 80 |
Helmholtz and Sturm--Liouville equations | p. 82 |
Exercises | p. 84 |
Body elastic waves | p. 87 |
P and S waves | p. 87 |
Case of plane waves | p. 88 |
Poisson's relation | p. 89 |
Inclusion of the seismic source in infinite media | p. 89 |
Spherical source | p. 89 |
Green's function representation for point sources | p. 91 |
Reciprocity theorem | p. 92 |
Form of ground motion in an earthquake | p. 93 |
The effect of gravity fluctuations | p. 96 |
The effects of elastic imperfections | p. 97 |
Constitutive laws for anelasticity | p. 97 |
Linear models and the Jeffreys power law | p. 99 |
Damping of harmonic waves. The quality factor Q | p. 101 |
Thermodynamical conditions | p. 102 |
Finite-strain effects | p. 103 |
Case of spherical waves | p. 104 |
Exercises | p. 106 |
Surface elastic waves and eigen-vibrations of a sphere | p. 108 |
Waves guided along a plane boundary | p. 108 |
Rayleigh waves | p. 111 |
Stoneley waves | p. 113 |
Love waves | p. 114 |
Nodal planes | p. 116 |
Dispersion curves | p. 116 |
The differential equation for continuously varying media | p. 117 |
Surface waves in the presence of multiple layers and sources | p. 118 |
Rayleigh waves for a single surface layer | p. 118 |
Matrix theory. Love and Rayleigh waves | p. 121 |
Lamb's problem | p. 124 |
Normal oscillations of an elastic sphere | p. 126 |
The basic equations | p. 126 |
Torsional (toroidal) modes | p. 128 |
Spheroidal and radial modes | p. 129 |
Geometrical description of the oscillations | p. 130 |
Effects of rotation and ellipticity. Terrestrial spectroscopy | p. 132 |
Duality with travelling waves | p. 133 |
Seismic waves in linear visco-elastic media | p. 134 |
Equation of motion. The correspondence principle | p. 134 |
Damped seismic waves | p. 135 |
Damped oscillations of a visco-elastic sphere | p. 136 |
Exercises | p. 137 |
Reflection and refraction of elastic waves | p. 140 |
Formulation | p. 140 |
Laws of reflection and refraction | p. 140 |
General equations for the two media | p. 141 |
Special cases | p. 142 |
Case of incident SH waves | p. 142 |
P wave incident against a free plane boundary | p. 144 |
SV wave incident against a free plane boundary | p. 145 |
Curved boundaries and head waves | p. 146 |
Refraction of dispersed waves | p. 147 |
Scattered seismic waves. Matrix theory | p. 148 |
Exercises | p. 151 |
Seismic rays in a spherically stratified Earth model | p. 153 |
The parameter p of a seismic ray | p. 153 |
Rays in inhomogeneous media. The eikonal equation | p. 154 |
Relations between p, [Delta], T for a given family of rays | p. 156 |
The relation p = dT/d[Delta] | p. 156 |
Some integral expressions for T, [Delta] | p. 157 |
The functions [zeta] and [zeta] | p. 159 |
Expressions for d[Delta]/dp and dT/dp | p. 159 |
Relations between [Delta] and T, corresponding to assigned variations of v with r | p. 160 |
Various cases | p. 160 |
Derivation of P and S velocity distributions from (T, [Delta]) relations | p. 165 |
Herglotz-Wiechert-Bateman inversion | p. 166 |
Bullen's method | p. 167 |
Linear inverse method | p. 168 |
Inversion for low velocity layers | p. 170 |
The tau ([tau]) method | p. 171 |
Special velocity distributions | p. 173 |
Curvature of a seismic ray | p. 173 |
Rays in a homogeneous medium | p. 174 |
Circular rays; the law v = a - br[superscript 2] | p. 174 |
Mohorovicic's law v = ar[superscript b] | p. 175 |
Theory of travel-times in near earthquakes | p. 175 |
Special form of the (T, [Delta]) relation for near earthquakes | p. 175 |
Application to a layered crustal structure | p. 176 |
Error, resolution and network design | p. 178 |
Determination of layer thicknesses | p. 178 |
Use of artificial sources. Seismic prospecting | p. 180 |
Exercises | p. 182 |
Amplitudes of the surface motion due to seismic waves in a spherically stratified Earth model | p. 185 |
Energy considerations | p. 185 |
Energy per unit area of wave front in an emerging wave | p. 185 |
Relation between energy and amplitude | p. 187 |
Movements of the surface due to an incident wave | p. 188 |
Amplitude as a function of [Delta] | p. 189 |
Loss of energy during transmission through the medium | p. 191 |
Gradual variation in properties | p. 191 |
Single discontinuity | p. 192 |
Waves which change type | p. 194 |
Amplitudes corresponding to cusps in (T, [Delta]) curves | p. 194 |
Amplitudes of surface seismic waves | p. 195 |
Reflectivity algorithms | p. 196 |
Exercises | p. 199 |
Seismometry | p. 201 |
The horizontal component seismograph | p. 202 |
Effect of tilt | p. 203 |
The vertical component seismograph | p. 204 |
The indicator equation | p. 205 |
Damping of seismographs | p. 206 |
Solution of the indicator equation | p. 207 |
Simple harmonic ground motion | p. 207 |
Impulsive ground motion | p. 208 |
General ground motion response curves | p. 209 |
Computation of the ground motion from a seismogram | p. 211 |
Displacement and velocity meters and accelerometers | p. 211 |
Recording methods and timing | p. 212 |
The dynamic ranges of seismic ground motion | p. 214 |
Microseisms | p. 214 |
Frequency range | p. 216 |
Amplitude range | p. 217 |
Modern seismographs | p. 217 |
The electromagnetic type | p. 218 |
Signal enhancement. Digital processing | p. 219 |
Strong-motion accelerometers and arrays | p. 221 |
Strain, tilt and other measurements | p. 224 |
Portable seismographs and microprocessors. Telemetry | p. 224 |
Ocean-bottom seismographs | p. 226 |
Engineering response spectra | p. 226 |
Exercises | p. 228 |
Construction of travel-time tables | p. 231 |
Parameters of earthquake location | p. 231 |
Calculation of the epicentral distance and azimuth | p. 231 |
Features of seismograms | p. 232 |
Estimation of P travel-time tables | p. 234 |
Equations of condition between hypocentre and table parameters. Geiger's and Inglada's methods | p. 234 |
Application of least-squares theory and inverse theory | p. 236 |
Jeffreys' method of successive approximation. Summary values | p. 238 |
Uniform reduction and robust estimation | p. 243 |
Regional variations and focal depths | p. 245 |
Use of digital computers. Tomography | p. 248 |
Travel-time tables other than P | p. 249 |
Notation used for phases read on seismograms | p. 250 |
Relations between different travel-time tables | p. 252 |
Types of travel-time tables for body waves | p. 253 |
Effect of the Earth's ellipticity | p. 254 |
Travel-times of surface waves | p. 257 |
Numerical results | p. 257 |
The Jeffreys-Bullen seismological tables | p. 257 |
Tables for PKP | p. 260 |
Ellipticity tables | p. 261 |
Statistical treatment of velocity and travel-time table estimation | p. 263 |
Exercises | p. 265 |
The seismological observatory | p. 267 |
Inside the observatory | p. 267 |
Interpretation of seismograms | p. 269 |
Determination of hypocentres and earthquake size | p. 272 |
Group estimation of earthquake parameters | p. 273 |
Abnormal observations. The T-phase. Precursors | p. 274 |
International seismological organisations | p. 275 |
International seismological catalogues | p. 276 |
Global digital networks | p. 277 |
Exercises | p. 279 |
Seismic waves in anomalous structures | p. 281 |
Anisotropic media | p. 281 |
Equation of motion and determinantal conditions | p. 281 |
Surface waves in anisotropic media | p. 283 |
Heterogeneous media. WKBJ approximation | p. 284 |
Topographic and structural variations | p. 286 |
Finite difference methods | p. 287 |
Finite element methods | p. 288 |
Numerical results. A mountain and oceanic-continental transition | p. 295 |
Variational methods | p. 302 |
Laboratory model seismology | p. 305 |
Exercises | p. 306 |
Seismic waves and planetary interiors | p. 310 |
Major discontinuities within the Earth | p. 310 |
Existence of a crust. Oceanic and continental structures | p. 310 |
Existence of a central core | p. 312 |
Discontinuities in the mantle | p. 314 |
Discontinuities in the central core | p. 315 |
Division of the Earth's interior into shells | p. 317 |
P and S velocity distributions in the Earth and Moon | p. 318 |
The crust | p. 318 |
The lithosphere | p. 320 |
The deep interior. Recent solutions | p. 321 |
The lunar interior | p. 324 |
The states of the Earth's mantle and core | p. 325 |
Solidity and fluidity | p. 325 |
Anelastic properties | p. 327 |
The Earth's density variation | p. 328 |
Early models of density variation | p. 329 |
Equations for density gradient from seismology | p. 329 |
Extension to inhomogeneous layers. The index [eta] | p. 331 |
The inverse problem of density determination | p. 332 |
Bullen's procedure | p. 332 |
Bullen's compressibility-pressure hypothesis | p. 334 |
Linear inversion. Tradeoff curves | p. 335 |
Direct use of seismic waves | p. 339 |
Stratification of the shells | p. 343 |
The upper mantle | p. 343 |
The shell D" | p. 344 |
The outer core (shell E) | p. 345 |
The shell F | p. 346 |
The inner core (shell G) | p. 347 |
Ellipticities of surfaces of equal density within the Earth | p. 348 |
Exercises | p. 348 |
Long-period oscillations and the Earth's interior | p. 350 |
Historical background | p. 350 |
Numerical results for Earth models | p. 352 |
Torsional oscillations | p. 352 |
Spheroidal oscillations | p. 353 |
Modal splitting. The solotone effect | p. 357 |
Estimation of observed eigen-spectra | p. 363 |
Fourier analysis | p. 363 |
Complex demodulation | p. 364 |
Calculation of eigen-frequency, amplitude, phase and Q | p. 366 |
Observations | p. 367 |
Earthquake statistics and prediction | p. 371 |
Energy released in earthquakes | p. 371 |
Case of near earthquakes | p. 372 |
Assumption of spherical symmetry about the source | p. 372 |
Use of surface waves | p. 374 |
Earthquake magnitude | p. 375 |
Magnitude and energy | p. 377 |
Magnitude - frequency of occurrence relation | p. 377 |
Seismicity | p. 379 |
Geography of shallow earthquakes | p. 379 |
Distribution of deep-focus earthquakes | p. 381 |
Tectonic associations | p. 383 |
Reservoir-induced earthquakes | p. 384 |
Foreshocks and aftershocks | p. 386 |
Aftershocks | p. 386 |
Foreshocks | p. 387 |
Swarms | p. 387 |
Earthquake prediction | p. 388 |
Prediction theory | p. 388 |
Periodicities and correlations. Seismicity patterns | p. 389 |
Changes in seismic velocities | p. 391 |
Changes in strain | p. 392 |
Dilatancy model | p. 393 |
Other field parameters. Liquefaction | p. 394 |
Exercises | p. 396 |
The earthquake source | p. 398 |
Elastic rebound model | p. 398 |
Causes of earthquakes | p. 398 |
Strain energy before an earthquake | p. 400 |
Faults and fracture | p. 402 |
Double couple model | p. 405 |
Source mechanism estimation | p. 406 |
Method of fault-plane solutions | p. 406 |
Probability model for group fault-plane solutions | p. 411 |
Moving dislocation source | p. 415 |
Kinematics and dynamics. Near field and far field | p. 415 |
Radiation patterns and directivity | p. 419 |
Synthetic seismograms | p. 423 |
Seismic moment | p. 424 |
Moment tensor | p. 425 |
Estimation of seismic moments | p. 426 |
Exercises | p. 428 |
Strong-motion seismology | p. 432 |
Effects of earthquakes | p. 432 |
Macroseismic data | p. 433 |
Intensity of earthquake effects | p. 433 |
Isoseismal curves and acceleration | p. 435 |
Fault rupture correlations | p. 437 |
Near-field parameters | p. 438 |
Recorded strong ground motion | p. 439 |
Peak ground accelerations, velocity and displacement | p. 439 |
Duration of shaking | p. 443 |
Spectral characteristics | p. 444 |
Local effects. Soil layers and upthrow | p. 446 |
Attenuation | p. 449 |
Array analysis | p. 451 |
Seismic risk | p. 455 |
Statistical theory. Poisson and hazard distributions | p. 455 |
Probability of exceedence of ground motions | p. 456 |
Seismic expectancy maps | p. 460 |
Design of earthquake-resistant structures | p. 462 |
Tsunamis, seiches, and atmospheric oscillations | p. 464 |
Exercises | p. 468 |
Reference velocities and elastic parameters in two Earth models | p. 470 |
Selected bibliography | p. 474 |
References | p. 478 |
Unit conversion table | p. 488 |
Index | p. 489 |
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved. |
ISBN: 9780521283892
ISBN-10: 0521283892
Audience:
Professional
Format:
Paperback
Language:
English
Number Of Pages: 520
Published: 13th January 1986
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.88
x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.83
Edition Number: 4
Edition Type: Revised