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An Introduction to Science Studies : The Philosophical and Social Aspects of Science and Technology - John M. Ziman

An Introduction to Science Studies

The Philosophical and Social Aspects of Science and Technology

Paperback Published: 21st September 1987
ISBN: 9780521346801
Number Of Pages: 216

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Professor Ziman provides a coherent account of the different perspectives on science and technology that are normally studied under various disciplinary heads such as philosophy of science, sociology of science, and science policy. It is intended for students embarking on courses in these subjects and assumes no special knowledge of any science. It is written in a direct and simple style, and technical language is seldom introduced. It will appeal to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines and complements Professor Ziman's earlier books.

'Professor Ziman is an excellent guide in these matters ... As an introductory map of the terrain, the book is clear and accurate. Each chapter is followed by a carefully chosen but not daunting long annotated reading list.' Times Higher Education Supplement 'Ziman's book is a tour de force ... It would make a fine textbook for an introductory course in a science, technology, and society program.' Science

Prefacep. ix
Academic' sciencep. 1
Different aspects of sciencep. 1
The chain of discoveryp. 2
'Internal' and 'external' sociologies of sciencep. 3
Three dimensions of 'academic' sciencep. 6
Academic science as 'public knowledge'p. 9
Researchp. 13
Scientific knowledgep. 13
Descriptionp. 14
Generalityp. 15
Patterns of factp. 16
Investigationp. 18
Instrumentationp. 19
Measurementp. 20
Experimentp. 22
Scientific lawsp. 23
Explanationp. 24
Cause and effectp. 25
Modelsp. 26
Theoryp. 28
Hypothesesp. 29
Problem-solving and the growth of knowledgep. 31
Validityp. 34
Epistemologyp. 34
Empiricismp. 35
Phenomena and sense-datap. 37
The problem of inductionp. 40
Inferencep. 41
Predictionp. 43
The hypothetico-deductive methodp. 46
Established knowledgep. 48
Does science describe reality?p. 52
Regulative principles of scientific workp. 55
Communicationp. 58
The archival literature of sciencep. 58
Linkage by citationp. 60
What does a scientific paper say?p. 61
How do scientific papers get published?p. 62
Selection by peer reviewp. 64
The accreditation processp. 65
'Informal' communication between scientistsp. 67
Authorityp. 70
Recognitionp. 70
Exchange of gifts--or competition?p. 72
Specializationp. 74
Invisible collegesp. 75
Stratificationp. 76
Functions and dysfunctions of authorityp. 78
Rules and normsp. 81
Behaving as a scientistp. 81
The Mertonian normsp. 84
An ethos of academic sciencep. 86
Does academic science have an ideology?p. 87
Changep. 91
Cognitive changep. 91
Institutional changep. 93
Change by revolutionp. 94
The historical structure of scientific revolutionsp. 96
The sociodynamics of scientific lifep. 99
The sociology of scientific knowledgep. 102
Science and the sociology of knowledgep. 102
Epistemological relativismp. 103
The 'strong programme' in the sociology of knowledgep. 105
Science as a social enterprisep. 106
Establishing a consensusp. 108
Sociological epistemologyp. 109
Science and technologyp. 112
Science as an instrumentp. 112
Science-based technologyp. 113
Technology-based sciencesp. 114
Scientific techniquep. 114
Science or technologyp. 115
Science from technology?p. 116
'S and T'p. 118
Pure and applied sciencep. 121
'R and D' in 'S and T'p. 121
Growthp. 123
Amateurism and state patronagep. 123
The rise of academic sciencep. 124
The external relations of academic sciencep. 126
Industrial sciencep. 127
Pure science--and its applicationsp. 129
Collectivized sciencep. 132
Societal demandp. 132
Apparatusp. 134
Sophistication and aggregationp. 136
Collaborationp. 137
The collectivization of sciencep. 138
R and D organizationsp. 140
Science as an instrument of policyp. 140
The spectrum of relevancep. 141
The philosophy and methods of R and Dp. 143
The management of R and Dp. 144
The internal sociology of collectivized sciencep. 145
The economics of researchp. 149
Costing the benefitsp. 149
Macroeconomics of R and Dp. 150
The sources of inventionp. 152
The microeconomics of researchp. 154
Economic incentives for R and Dp. 156
Science and the Statep. 159
Government support for sciencep. 159
The politics of sciencep. 160
Criteria for choicep. 161
The dilemma of patronagep. 164
The limits of controlp. 166
Science in governmentp. 169
The scientist in societyp. 173
Towards a social psychology of sciencep. 173
The scientist as intellectual entrepreneurp. 174
Citizen of the republic of sciencep. 176
The scientist as technical workerp. 177
The scientist as expertp. 178
Social responsibility in sciencep. 180
Science as a cultural resourcep. 183
Beyond the instrumental modep. 183
Public understanding of sciencep. 184
Folk science, pseudo-science and parasciencep. 185
Academic scientismp. 187
Science and valuesp. 190
The value of sciencep. 192
Indexp. 195
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521346801
ISBN-10: 0521346800
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 216
Published: 21st September 1987
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 15.2  x 1.3
Weight (kg): 0.32
Edition Type: Annotated