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An Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics : The Formation and the Evolution of Matter in the Universe - Jean Audouze

An Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics

The Formation and the Evolution of Matter in the Universe

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Published: 31st December 1979
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TO NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS The Formation and the Evolution of Matter in the Universe JEAN AUDOUZE lnstitut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France and SYLVIE VA UCLAI R DAPHE, Ohservatoire de Meudon, France and lnstitut d'Astrophysique, Paris D, REIDEL PUBLISHING COMPANY DORDRECHT: HOLLAND/BOSTON: U. S. A. LONDON: ENGLAND Library of Congre~ Cataloging in Publication Data Audouzc. Jean An introduction to nuclear astrophysics. (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs; v. 18) En!. and updated translation of L'Astrophysique nucltaire. Includes bibliographies and index. . Nuclear astrophysics. I. Vauclair, Sylvie, joint author. II. Title. III. Series. QB464. A9313 1979 523. 01'9'7 79-20752 ISBN-13: 978-90-277-1053-6 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-9477-5 DO I: 10. 1007/978-94-009-9477-5 Published by D. Reidel Publishing Company, P. O. Box 17. Dordrecht, Holland Sold and distributed in the U. S. A. , Canada, and Mexico by D. Reidel Publishing Company, Inc. Lincoln Building. 160 Old Derby Street, Hingham, Mass. 02043, U. S. A. All Rights Reserved Copyright (c) 1980 by D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1980 No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any informational storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner TABLE OF CONTENTS IX FOREWORD INTRODUCTION xi XXI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I / THE OBSERVATIONAL BASIS OF NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS 1. 1. The Importance of the Four Fundamental Interactions 1 1. 2.

I / The Observational Basis of Nuclear Astrophysics.- I.1. The Importance of the Four Fundamental Interactions.- I.2. A Brief Description of the Observed Universe.- II / The Evolution of Matter in the Universe.- II.1. The Origin of the Universe.- II.1.1. The Hadron Era.- II.1.2. The Lepton Era.- II.1.3. The Radiation Era.- II.1.4. The Stellar Era.- II.2. Stellar Evolution.- II.2.1. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.- II.2.2. Stellar Evolution.- III / The Chemical Composition of the Observable Universe.- III.1. Techniques for Abundance Determination.- III.1.1. The Direct Methods.- III.1.2. The Indirect Methods.- III.2. The Abundances of the Elements in the Universe.- III.3. Main-Sequence Peculiar Stars.- IV / Thermonuclear Reactions and Nuclear Reactions in Stellar Interiors.- IV.1. Nuclear Reactions: Generalities.- IV.2. Nuclear Reaction Rates.- IV.3. Hydrogen Burning.- IV.3.1. The Proton-Proton Chain or PPI Chain.- IV.3.2. The Proton Chains with a He Catalyst, or PPII and PPIII Chains.- IV.3.3. The CNO Cycles.- IV.4. Helium Burning.- IV.5. Hydrostatic C, O, and Si Burning.- IV.6. Conclusion.- V / Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Stars.- V.1. Supernovae.- V.1.1. The Fe Photodisintegration Mechanism.- V.l.2. The C Detonation Mechanism.- V.l.3. The Neutrino Transport Mechanism.- V.l.4. Deceleration of the Central Pulsar.- V.2. Other Explosive Objects or Explosive Stages.- V.2.1. The Helium Flashes.- V.2.2. The Novae Outbursts.- V.2.3. Explosions of Supermassive Stars.- V.3. The Explosive Nucleosynthesis.- V.4. The Main Results of the Explosive Nucleosynthesis.- V.4.1. Explosive Burning in H and He Burning Zones.- V.4.2. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in C, O, and Si Burning Zones.- VI / Formation of the Heavy Elements: s, r, and p Processes.- VI.1. Abundances of the Heavy Elements - Processes of Neutron Capture.- VI.2. Neutron Capture Reactions.- VI.3. The s Process.- VI.3.1. The Main Neutron Sources for the s Process.- VI.3.2. The s Process Nucleosynthesis.- VI.4. The r Process.- VI.5. The p Process.- VI.5.1. Weak Interaction Mechanism.- VI.5.2. Spallation Reactions.- VI.5.3. Thermonuclear Reactions.- VII / Nucleosynthesis of the Light Elements.- VII.1. The Abundance of the Light Elements.- VII.2. The Spallation Reactions.- VII.3. Production of Li, Be, B, by the Galactic Cosmic Rays.- VII.4. Light Element Production in Stellar Objects.- VII.4.1. Light Element Production in Supernovae Explosions.- VII.4.2. Other Stellar Sites to Produce 7Li.- VII.5. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.- VII.5.1. The Basic Assumptions.- VII.5.2. The Standard Model.- IV.6. Conclusion.- VIII / Nucleochronologies and the Formation of the Solar System.- VIII.1. Astronomical Chronologies.- VIII.2. Nucleochronologies.- VIII.2.1 Duration of the Nucleosynthesis: Long Lifetime Radionuclides.- VIII.2.2. The Short Lived Isotopes (?T? 1).- VIII.3. Isotopic Anomalies in Carbonaceous Chondrites.- VIII.4. The Astrophysical Implications of the Anomalies.- VIII.5. Conclusion.- IX / Chemical Evolution of Galaxies.- IX.1. Observational Abundance Distribution.- IX.2. The Ingredients of the Galactic Chemical Evolution.- IX.2.1. Parameters Related to the Stellar Populations.- IX.2.2. Dynamical Effects: Inflow of External Gas; Inhomogeneities.- IX.3. Evolution of the Solar Neighborhood.- IX.3.1. The Simple Model.- IX.3.2. Further Models of Evolution.- IX.3.2.1. Variable Initial Mass Function Models (VIMF).- IX.3.2.2. Prompt Initial Enrichment (PIE model).- IX.3.2.3. Metal Enhanced Star Formation (MESF).- IX.3.2.4. Accretion or Infall of External Gas.- IX.4. Numerical Models with No Instant Recycling.- IX.5. Conclusion: Chemical Evolution of Galaxies.- Conclusion.- Appendix A.I. Some Fundamental Constants.- Appendix A.II. Some Astronomical Constants.- Appendix A.III. Some Quantities Associated with One Electron-Volt.- Appendix B. Atomic Mass Excesses.- Index of Subjects.

ISBN: 9789027710123
ISBN-10: 9027710120
Series: Geophysics and Astrophysics Monographs
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 168
Published: 31st December 1979
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.8  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 1.0