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An Analog VLSI System for Stereoscopic Vision : The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science - Misha Mahowald

An Analog VLSI System for Stereoscopic Vision

The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science

Hardcover Published: 31st March 1994
ISBN: 9780792394440
Number Of Pages: 215

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An Analog VLSI System for Stereoscopic Vision investigates the interaction of the physical medium and the computation in both biological and analog VLSI systems by synthesizing a functional neuromorphic system in silicon.
In both the synthesis and analysis of the system, a point of view from within the system is adopted rather than that of an omniscient designer drawing a blueprint. This perspective projects the design and the designer into a living landscape. The motivation for a machine-centered perspective is explained in the first chapter. The second chapter describes the evolution of the silicon retina. The retina accurately encodes visual information over orders of magnitude of ambient illumination, using mismatched components that are calibrated as part of the encoding process. The visual abstraction created by the retina is suitable for transmission through a limited bandwidth channel. The third chapter introduces a general method for interchip communication, the address-event representation, which is used for transmission of retinal data. The address-event representation takes advantage of the speed of CMOS relative to biological neurons to preserve the information of biological action potentials using digital circuitry in place of axons. The fourth chapter describes a collective circuit that computes stereodisparity. In this circuit, the processing that corrects for imperfections in the hardware compensates for inherent ambiguity in the environment. The fifth chapter demonstrates a primitive working stereovision system.
An Analog VLSI System for Stereoscopic Vision contributes to both computer engineering and neuroscience at a concrete level. Through the construction of a working analog of biological vision subsystems, new circuits for building brain-style analog computers have been developed. Specific neuropysiological and psychophysical results in terms of underlying electronic mechanisms are explained. These examples demonstrate the utility of using biological principles for building brain-style computers and the significance of building brain-style computers for understanding the nervous system.

Synthesisp. 1
The Silicon Retinap. 4
Anatomical Modelsp. 4
Architecture of the Silicon Retinap. 14
Photoreceptorsp. 19
Horizontal Cellsp. 31
Bipolar Cellsp. 43
Physical Constraints on Information Processingp. 52
Emergent Propertiesp. 56
The Silicon Optic Nervep. 66
Summary of Existing Techniquesp. 66
Address-Event Representationp. 68
Model of Data-Transfer Timing Efficiencyp. 71
Data Transfer in One Dimensionp. 74
Two-Dimensional Retina - Receiver Systemp. 91
Advantages of Address Eventsp. 107
Stereopsisp. 118
Stereocorrespondencep. 121
Neurophysiologyp. 125
Stereocorrespondence Algorithmsp. 125
Stereocorrespondence Chipp. 138
Experimentsp. 159
Stereocorrespondence as a Model of Cortical Functionp. 177
Systemp. 182
A: Simple Circuitsp. 192
Transistorsp. 192
Current Mirrorsp. 193
Differential Pairsp. 196
Transconductance Amplifiersp. 196
Low-Pass Filterp. 198
Resistorp. 198
Bibliographyp. 203
Indexp. 213
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792394440
ISBN-10: 0792394445
Series: The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 215
Published: 31st March 1994
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 1.12