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Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductor Devices : Opto-electronic Devices v. 1 - Jerzy Kanicki

Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductor Devices

Opto-electronic Devices v. 1

By: Jerzy Kanicki (Editor)

Hardcover

Published: 19th April 1991
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This volume presents an integrated survey of the most recent research, engineering development and commercial application of amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductor optoelectronic devices. The emphasis throughout the book is on understanding the physical fundamentals with a view towards designing and implementing practical optoelectronic devices.

Prefacep. xv
The Authorsp. xvii
The Editorp. xxi
Introductionp. 1
Definition of Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductorsp. 1
Organization of the Bookp. 2
Other Optoelectronic Devicesp. 7
Referencesp. 7
Solar Cells Made of Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductorsp. 9
Introductionp. 9
Device and Materials Preparationp. 13
Devicesp. 19
Introductionp. 19
Theoryp. 21
Contacts, Interfaces, and Dopingp. 27
Single and Multijunction Device Performancep. 42
Device Stabilityp. 55
Modulesp. 60
Future Directionsp. 64
Acknowledgementsp. 65
Referencesp. 66
List of Symbolsp. 74
Flat Panel Displays Using Amorphous and Monocrystalline Semiconductor Devicesp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Liquid Crystal Cellsp. 78
General Descriptionp. 78
Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cellsp. 81
Basic Characteristics of Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cellsp. 84
Twisted-Nematic-Mode Simple-Matrix Liquid Crystal Displayp. 87
Diode-Matrix Liquid Crystal Displaysp. 90
Basic Configurationp. 90
Basic Drive Schemep. 92
Examples of Diode-Matrix Liquid Crystal Displaysp. 96
Operational Principle of Thin-Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displaysp. 100
Basic Configuration of a Thin-Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displayp. 100
Drive Scheme of a Thin-Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displayp. 102
Basic Dynamic Operationp. 103
Fabrication Process of Thin-Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displaysp. 107
Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistor Structurep. 108
Thin-Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display Process and Structurep. 113
Major Step Processes During the Thin-Film Transistor Array Substrate Fabricationp. 119
Glass Substratep. 119
Gate Line Materialsp. 119
Gate Insulatorsp. 120
Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Filmsp. 121
Passivation Filmsp. 123
Other Topics Related to Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displaysp. 123
Reliabilityp. 123
Redundancy and Repair Technologyp. 124
Integration of Peripheral Circuitsp. 126
Temperature Dependencep. 127
Description of 14.3-inch-Diagonal Color Liquid Crystal Display Using Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistorsp. 129
Summaryp. 131
Referencesp. 131
List of Symbolsp. 138
Amorphous Silicon Charge-Coupled Devicesp. 141
Introductionp. 141
Overview of a-Si:H CCDsp. 142
Physical Background of a-Si:H CCD Operationp. 142
Device Structuresp. 143
Device Physics of a-Si:H CCDsp. 144
Basic Theoryp. 146
Thickness and Doping of the a-Si:H Layerp. 149
Deep Defect Statesp. 153
Metallic Gatesp. 154
Computer Simulation of Narrow-Channel Devicesp. 156
Experimental Resultsp. 157
Fabrication Processp. 157
Transfer Inefficiencyp. 158
Parallel-to-Serial Conversionp. 161
Conclusionsp. 163
Referencesp. 163
List of Symbolsp. 165
Amorphous Superlattices and Multilayer Structures: Some Aspects of Physics and Applicationsp. 167
Introductionp. 167
Preparation of Amorphous Superlattice Structuresp. 168
Microstructure of a-Si:H/a-Si[subscript 3]N[subscript 4]:H Multilayersp. 169
Structural Stabilityp. 172
Band Edge Offset at Heterojunction Interfacep. 175
Resonant Tunnelingp. 176
Optical Propertiesp. 179
Optical Bandgapp. 179
Luminescencep. 180
Luminescence Quenchingp. 183
Electrical Propertiesp. 185
Device Applicationsp. 186
Solar Cellsp. 187
Thin-Film Transistorsp. 188
Optical Sensorsp. 189
Light-Emitting Diodesp. 189
Conclusionsp. 190
Acknowledgementsp. 191
Referencesp. 191
List of Symbolsp. 194
Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon-Carbide Alloy Light-Emitting Diodes: Physics and Propertiesp. 195
Introductionp. 195
Preparation and Device Properties of a-SiC:H Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodep. 197
Preparation and Properties of a-SiC:Hp. 197
Junction Characteristics of a-SiC:H p-i-n TFLEDp. 204
Carrier Transport Mechanism in the a-SiC:H p-i-n Junctionp. 207
Electroluminescence Propertiesp. 209
Optimization of i-Layer Thicknessp. 209
EL Spectrap. 214
Improvements of EL Intensityp. 218
p-i-n/p-i-n Tandem Structuresp. 218
Carrier Confinement Effect in Superlattice Luminescent i-Layerp. 220
Hot Carrier Tunneling Injection Structurep. 224
Utilization of p- and n-Type Microcrystalline Silicon-Carbide Alloys as Carrier Injectorsp. 228
Preparation of p- and n-Type Microcrystalline Silicon-Carbide Alloys by ECR Plasma CVDp. 228
Application of p- and n-Type Microcrystalline SiC:H to Carrier Injector Layers in a-SiC:H TFLEDp. 231
Applications of a-SiC:H TFLEDs to Optoelectronic Functional Elementsp. 234
Conclusionsp. 236
Acknowledgementp. 236
Referencesp. 237
List of Symbolsp. 240
Amorphous Semiconductor Image Sensors: Physics, Properties and Performancep. 241
Introductionp. 241
Sensor Elements and Operationp. 243
Photoresistorsp. 243
Photodiodesp. 247
Sensor Operationp. 253
Linear Image Sensorsp. 257
Generalp. 257
Directly Addressed Sensorsp. 258
Matrix Addressed Sensorsp. 267
Thin-Film Transistor-Driven Sensorsp. 269
Optical Scanning Sensorsp. 278
Area Image Sensorsp. 279
Camera Tubesp. 279
Two-Level Sensorsp. 283
Large Matrix-Area Sensorsp. 286
Summaryp. 289
Acknowledgementp. 289
Referencesp. 290
List of Symbolsp. 294
Charged Particle, Gamma Ray, and Light Detection in Amorphous Silicon Devicesp. 297
Introductionp. 297
Properties of Detector Diodesp. 299
Field Shaping in i Layerp. 301
Light Detection in a-Si:H Detectorsp. 305
The Light Absorption Mechanismp. 306
The Photocurrentp. 308
Quantum Efficiency and Choice of Scintillatorp. 308
Charged Particle Detectionp. 310
Detection of X-Rays and [gamma]-Raysp. 312
Radiation Resistance of a-Si:H p[superscript +]-i-n[superscript +] Diodesp. 314
Signal and Noise in a-Si:H Detectorsp. 315
Signal Characteristicsp. 316
Signal Collection and Amplifier Characteristicsp. 316
Noisep. 316
Detector Applicationsp. 320
Charged Particle Detector Applications--High Energy Physicsp. 320
Charged Particle Detector Applications--Radionuclide Labelled Chromatographyp. 322
X-Ray Detection: Radiographyp. 323
X-Ray Detection: Crystallographyp. 323
Single [gamma]-Ray Detectionp. 324
Summary and Conclusionsp. 325
Acknowledgementsp. 325
Referencesp. 326
List of Symbolsp. 329
Applications of Amorphous Silicon Position-Sensitive Detectorsp. 331
Introductionp. 331
Amorphous Silicon Position-Sensitive Detectorsp. 331
Structurep. 331
Operational Principlep. 332
Applicationp. 333
Position-Sensing System for a Microtunneling Machinep. 335
Input Devices for Computersp. 336
Telephone Terminalp. 336
Summaryp. 341
Acknowledgementsp. 341
Referencesp. 341
List of Symbolsp. 343
Amorphous Materials and Physics Issues in Electrophotographyp. 345
Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon as Material for Photoreceptorp. 345
Historical Surveyp. 347
Charging and Photo-induced Discharging Characteristicsp. 349
Device Structurep. 349
Charging and Photo-induced Discharging Characteristicsp. 352
Image Quality and Surface Passivation Layerp. 357
Fabrication of Practical a-Si:H Drumsp. 358
Conclusionp. 365
Acknowledgementp. 366
Referencesp. 366
List of Symbolsp. 368
Amorphous Silicon for Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulatorsp. 369
Backgroundp. 369
Liquid Crystalsp. 371
Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystalsp. 372
Ferroelectric Liquid Crystalsp. 373
Electroclinic Liquid Crystalsp. 375
Surface Alignment of Liquid Crystalsp. 375
Optical Propertiesp. 376
Device Structurep. 378
Photosensorp. 378
Reflectorp. 380
Transparent Conducting Oxidep. 381
Patterned Devicesp. 383
Device Fabricationp. 384
Device Technologiesp. 385
Equivalent Circuit Analysisp. 387
Equivalent Circuitp. 388
Electrical Switchingp. 391
Response to Spatially Uniform Illuminationp. 394
Response Timep. 395
Sensitivityp. 396
Transfer Characteristicsp. 397
Spatial Resolutionp. 398
Measurement of the Spatial Resolutionp. 399
Factors Determining the Resolutionp. 401
Applicationsp. 403
Projection Displaysp. 403
Optical Correlatorsp. 403
Image Wavelength Convertersp. 404
Optical Neural Networksp. 404
Optical Phase-Conjugate Mirrorsp. 404
Algebraic and Logic Processorsp. 405
Concluding Remarksp. 405
Acknowledgementsp. 407
Referencesp. 407
List of Symbolsp. 411
Experimental Studies of Artificial Neural Networks Using Amorphous Siliconp. 413
Introductionp. 413
Artificial Neural Networksp. 414
Binary Networksp. 417
Analog Networksp. 419
Hardware Approachesp. 421
Optically Controlled Neural Networksp. 422
The Amorphous Silicon Photoconductive Synapsep. 423
Process-Related Contact Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Siliconp. 425
Optical Neural Network Hardware Evolutionp. 430
Application Examplesp. 434
Hopfield Content-Addressable Memoryp. 434
Analog Adaptive Networksp. 436
System Identificationp. 440
Signal Predictionp. 442
Summaryp. 446
Acknowledgementsp. 447
Referencesp. 447
List of Symbolsp. 449
Indexp. 451
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890064900
ISBN-10: 0890064903
Series: Electronic Materials & Devices Library : Book 1
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 484
Published: 19th April 1991
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 3.1
Weight (kg): 0.88