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American Trade Politics - I. M. Destler

American Trade Politics

Paperback Published: November 1995
ISBN: 9780881322156
Number Of Pages: 338
For Ages: 22+ years old

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American Trade Politcs is the most influential and widely read analysis of the US trade policymaking system. In the third edition of this winner of the American Political Science Association's Gladys Kammerer award for the best book on US national policy, Destler extends his original analysis to assess the politics of the extraordinarily contentious debates over NAFTA and the Uruguay Round. He explains how free traders overcame the opposing forces represented by H. Ross Perot, Pat Buchanan, and Ralph Nader to secure congressional approval for the two most important US trade agreements in the postwar period. The liberal trade regime survived these latest challenges, but Destler nevertheless argues that there is a need for reform of the policymaking system in the 1990s to advance US-led free trade negotiations in the Western Hemisphere and the Asia Pacific as well as future rounds of global liberalization.

Forewordp. ix
Prefacep. xiii
Origin
Trade Politics: The Root Problem, the Continuing Crisisp. 3
The Old System: Protection for Congressp. 11
Protecting Congress from Trade Pressuresp. 14
The "Bargaining Tariff"p. 16
The "Bicycle Theory" and "Export Politics"p. 17
The Executive Brokerp. 18
"The Rules"p. 21
Deals for "Special Cases"p. 24
Strong Congressional Committeesp. 27
Trade as a Nonparty Issuep. 30
The System's Advantages and Limitsp. 32
The Contradictions of the Systemp. 34
The "Bargaining Tariff" as Vanishing Assetp. 34
International Openness Versus Domestic Interventionp. 35
Success as Multiplier of Trade Pressuresp. 36
The Dilemma of the Rulesp. 37
Erosion
A Tougher World: Changes in the Context of Trade Policyp. 41
15 August as Prologuep. 41
The Trade Explosionp. 45
The "Decline" of the United Statesp. 47
The Rise of New Competitorsp. 50
The Erosion of the GATTp. 53
Stagflationp. 54
Floating Exchange Rates and Dollar "Misalignment"p. 57
Economic Tripolarity and the End of the Cold Warp. 61
A Tougher Worldp. 62
A Less Protected Congressp. 65
Congressional Reform and the Weakening of Ways and Meansp. 67
Renewing the Delegation of Power: The "Fast-Track" Proceduresp. 71
Industry-Specific Proposals: The Automobile Casep. 77
Committee Competition and Policy Entrepreneurshipp. 80
The Trade and Tariff Act of 1984: Pressure Containedp. 84
1985-88: The Years of Tradep. 89
The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988p. 92
Mexico and Fast-Track Renewalp. 98
1984 and After: The Leadership Differencep. 103
An Embattled Executivep. 105
STR's Early Ups and Downsp. 107
Strauss and the MTN: The STR on Center Stagep. 109
The Executive Broker and Its Criticsp. 114
The Carter Reorganizationp. 117
Reagan I: Commerce Versus USTRp. 118
USTR and Presidential Ambivalencep. 120
Liberal Words, Protectionist Deedsp. 122
Reagan II: An Eight-Month Vacuump. 123
Reagan II: The Shift to Activismp. 125
Targeting the World: Section 301p. 126
Targeting Japan: From MOSS to Semiconductor Sanctionsp. 128
Working the Trade Bill: Damage Limitationp. 131
Carla Hills and Super 301p. 132
Geneva Versus Mexico City?p. 134
Broker in Need of a Breakthroughp. 135
The USTR Enters Its Thirtiesp. 137
Changing the Rules: The Rise of Administrative Trade Remediesp. 139
Through the Early 1970s: Little Reliefp. 141
The Trade Act of 1974p. 142
The Result: Slightly More Reliefp. 145
The Trade Agreements Act of 1979p. 148
The Declining Use of the Escape Clausep. 150
The Decline of Trade Adjustment Assistancep. 152
The Upsurge in "Unfair Trade" Casesp. 154
Forcing Political Solutionsp. 157
Steel Wins Comprehensive Protectionp. 159
Trade-Remedies Reform: The Gibbons Billp. 162
The Omnibus Legislation of 1986-88p. 164
Administrative Remedies: A Balance Sheet on the 1980sp. 166
The Limits of Administrative Remediesp. 170
The National Arena: More Open, More Partisanp. 175
An "Amazing Political Reversal"?p. 176
A Newly Ambivalent Elitep. 181
Challenges to Laissez-Faire Trade Doctrinep. 185
New Patterns of Interest-Group Politicsp. 191
Conclusionsp. 198
Summation and Prescription
Summing Up: The System Held, But Stay Tunedp. 203
First, Some Good Newsp. 204
Next, The Bad Newsp. 208
Looking Aheadp. 214
1992-94: Missions Accomplished?p. 217
From Bush to Clintonp. 218
The NAFTA Debate: Clinton Cedes the Field to the Criticsp. 222
Clinton Recovers, and Wins Bigp. 224
Japan, China, and APECp. 229
Brussels and Geneva: Completing the Uruguay Roundp. 231
US Business, Human Rights, and the China Marketp. 233
Japan: Failure and Modest Successp. 236
Implementing the Uruguay Round: A Slow Startp. 238
Antidumping: Reversing the Roundp. 240
The Loss of Future Fast-Trackp. 244
The WTO and US "Sovereignty"p. 245
Delaying the Process: Dole, Hollings, and Gingrichp. 247
From Partisan Wrangle to Bipartisan Victoryp. 251
Looking to the Futurep. 255
What to Do? A Framework for Future US Trade Policyp. 259
Policy for the Near Termp. 260
A New Agenda?p. 260
More Effective Trade Advocacyp. 261
A Trimmed-Down Fast-Track Processp. 261
Managing Trade Policy: A Basic Prescriptionp. 264
How Not to Cure Trade Imbalancesp. 269
Trade With Japan: Right Problem, Wrong Solutionp. 270
Getting Serious About Trade Imbalancesp. 276
Educationp. 276
Macroeconomic Policyp. 277
Microeconomic Policy: Promoting Adjustment and Productivity Growthp. 280
The Role of Trade Policyp. 285
Can the System Be Salvaged?p. 286
Policy Tools: International Negotiationsp. 289
Flexibility on Fast-Trackp. 290
Revising the Trade-Remedy Lawsp. 290
Keeping Section 301p. 293
Using Section 301: Strategic Trade Policy or Sectoral Reciprocity?p. 294
A Separate Trade Policy Toward Japan?p. 297
A USTR-Based Trade Reorganizationp. 298
Policy Tools: New Approaches to Trade Adjustmentp. 302
In Defense of Trade Brokeringp. 305
Glossaryp. 309
Indexp. 325
Figures
United States: nominal effective exchange rates, 1980-93p. 58
Escape clause investigations, 1975-94p. 151
Countervailing duty and antidumping investigations, 1979-94p. 151
Tables
United States: merchandise imports, exports, and trade balance, 1960-94p. 45
Antidumping, countervailing duty, and Section 201 investigations initiated, 1979-94p. 166
Antidumping cases and results, 1980-93p. 168
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780881322156
ISBN-10: 0881322156
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 22+ years old
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 338
Published: November 1995
Publisher: The Peterson Institute for International Economics
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.23 x 15.24  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.5
Edition Number: 3

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