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America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe - Volker R. Berghahn

America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe

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Published: 18th August 2002
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In 1958, Shepard Stone, then directing the Ford Foundation's International Affairs program, suggested that his staff "measure" America's cultural impact in Europe. He wanted to determine whether efforts to improve opinions of American culture were yielding good returns. Taking Stone's career as a point of departure and frequent return, Volker Berghahn examines the triangular relationship between the producers of ideas and ideologies, corporate America, and Washington policymakers at a peculiar juncture of U.S. history. He also looks across the Atlantic, at the Western European intellectuals, politicians, and businessmen with whom these Americans were in frequent contact. While shattered materially and psychologically by World War II, educated Europeans did not shed their opinions about the inferiority, vulgarity, and commercialism of American culture. American elites--particularly the East Coast establishment--deeply resented this condescension. They believed that the United States had two culture wars to win: one against the Soviet Bloc as part of the larger struggle against communism and the other against deeply rooted negative views of America as a civilization. To triumph, they spent large sums of money on overt and covert activities, from tours of American orchestras to the often secret funding of European publications and intellectual congresses by the CIA.

At the center of these activities were the Ford Foundation, the Congress for Cultural Freedom, and Washington's agents of cultural diplomacy. This was a world of Ivy League academics and East Coast intellectuals, of American philanthropic organizations and their backers in big business, of U.S. government agencies and their counterparts across the Atlantic. This book uses Shepard Stone as a window to this world in which the European-American relationship was hammered out in cultural terms--an arena where many of the twentieth century's major intellectual trends and conflicts unfolded.

"This fascinating book is both a biography of the American diplomat Shepard Stone and an intricate account of U.S. cultural policies in Europe after World War II... By throwing light on this neglected but vital story, Berghahn has made a major contribution to the understanding of American hegemony in postwar Europe."--Foreign Affairs "A valuable piece of research about an extraordinary historical event and Mr. Berghahn has told it well."--Arnold Beichman, Washington Times "This is a thoughtful volume by someone equally at home in American and European intellectual history. It recounts the unique career of a man who felt comfortable among the best brains, enabled them to do valuable work, loved to argue, made enemies by putting people down--and made history."--Robert Goldman, The New Leader "An excellent new book... Berghahn combines biography and cultural history to provide a deft portrait of European-American relations in the modern era."--David M. Oshinsky, The New York Times Book Review "An important contribution to intellectual history."--Arnold Beichman, The Weekly Standard "Erudite and thoughtful."--Chioce "This study represents a substantial contribution to the small but growing body of work on the culture and ideas of the Cold War. Above all, it is a truly international study, showing that the traffic in ideas is a worthy subject for students of international relations."--International Affairs "Berghahn ... successfully identifies and illuminates the too-often neglected role of nongovernmental actors in the evolution of American Cold War diplomacy."--Walter L. Hixson, American Historical Review "This is a laudable effort that should provoke much discussion about this aspect of the Cold War. It will also provides an important guidepost for further investigations of the cultural and intellectual cold wars of this period and their lace within the Soviet-American conflict as a whole."--Gregory Moore, The Historian "A significant addition to the burgeoning literature on Americanization."--Brian C. Etheridge, German Studies Review

Abbreviationsp. ix
Introductionp. xi
From Nashua and Berlin to Pearl Harborp. 3
Nashua (New Hampshire) and Dartmouth Collegep. 3
Student in Weimar Germanyp. 6
Reporting on Europe and Hitlerp. 12
Rescue from the Holocaustp. 23
Defeating and Rebuilding Germanyp. 26
War Service in Europep. 26
Occupied Germanyp. 29
Working for U.S. Military Governmentp. 33
Back with the New York Timesp. 44
Public Opinion and High Politics in Semisovereign West Germanyp. 52
Joining U.S. High Commissioner John J. McCloyp. 52
Stone's German-American Networkp. 55
McCloy's "Harry Hopkins"p. 59
Supporting a Democratic Pressp. 68
Mass Society and the Threat of Totalitarianismp. 77
Elites and Massesp. 78
Visions of Americap. 85
Totalitarian Dictatorshipsp. 92
The Debate on Culture in Americap. 96
Western Intellectuals and the Cold Culture Wars of the Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF)p. 108
Mass Culture and the Congress for Cultural Freedomp. 108
Communists and Ex-Communistsp. 113
Rallying the Anti-Soviet Leftp. 126
The Growth of the CCF Empirep. 132
Internationalizing the Ford Foundationp. 143
The Biggest Philanthropic Organization in the Worldp. 143
The Conditions of Peace Projectp. 145
The Struggle for a European Programp. 153
Exporting American Culturep. 168
Philanthropy and Diplomacyp. 178
Ford's International Programp. 178
Looking Eastp. 187
Midwife to European Philanthropyp. 194
Cultural and Political Investmentsp. 201
The CIA, the Ford Foundation, and the Demise of the CCF Empirep. 214
The U.S. Government and the Funding of Culturep. 215
The Ford Foundation's Washington Connectionsp. 220
Rescuing the CCFp. 230
Scandal and Collapsep. 241
Coping with the New Culture Wars of the 1960s and Beyondp. 250
The Establishment of the IACFp. 250
Financial Straitsp. 255
The Cultural Roots of Failurep. 265
The Berlin Aspen Institutep. 276
Transatlantic Cultural Relations in the "American Century"p. 284
List of West German Newspapers Subsidized by HICOGp. 297
American Foundations Ranked by Assets, 1960p. 299
International Association for Cultural Freedom, Table of Organizationp. 300
Notesp. 301
Bibliographyp. 355
Indexp. 363
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691102566
ISBN-10: 0691102562
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 400
Published: 18th August 2002
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.32 x 16.0  x 2.41
Weight (kg): 0.57