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Amazonian Dark Earths : Explorations in Space and Time :  Explorations in Space and Time - Bruno Glaser

Amazonian Dark Earths : Explorations in Space and Time

Explorations in Space and Time

By: Bruno Glaser (Editor), William I. Woods (Editor)

Hardcover

Published: June 2004
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1 Towards an Understanding of Amazonian Dark Earths.- 2 History, Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives of Geoecological Research Concerning the Origin of Amazonian Anthropogenic Dark Earths (Terra Preta).- 3 Evolution of the Scientific Knowledge Regarding Archaeological Black Earths of Amazonia.- 4 A Geographical Method for Anthrosol Characterization in Amazonia: Contributions to Method and Human Ecological Theory.- 5 Paleoriverine Features of the Amazon Lowlands: Human Use of the 'Arena Negra' Soils of Lake Charo, Northeastern Peru.- 6 Dark Earth in the Upper Amazon.- 7 Organic Matter in Archaeological Black Earths and Yellow Latosol in the Caxiuana, Amazonia, Brazil.- 8 Sequential P Fractionation of Relict Anthropogenic Dark Earths of Amazonia.- 9 The Timing of Terra Preta Formation in the Central Amazon: Archaeological Data from the Three Sites.- 10 Semi-Intensive Pre-European Cultivation and the Origins of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Amazonia.- 11 Identifying the Pre-Columbian Anthropogenic Input on Present Soil Properties of Amazonian Dark Earths (Terra Preta).- 12 Use of Space and Formation of Terra Preta: The Asurini do Xingu Case Study.- 13 Research on Anthropogenic Dark Earth Soils. Could It Be a Solution for Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Amazon?.- 14 Slash and Char: An Alternative to Slash and Burn Practiced in the Amazon Basin.- 15 Microbial Response to Charcoal Amendments of Highly Weathered Soils and Amazonian Dark Earths in Central Amazonia - Preliminary Results.

From the reviews:

"Concern for the environmental health of Amazonia is at the forefront of current international environmental issues. ... Even more uncommonly discussed is the existence of `dark earths,' the subject of this book. ... Coverage ranges from a review of the literature to discussion of appropriate methodology. ... the book is well written and an excellent resource on this topic. ... it will be valuable for all academic libraries and useful to a wide range of readers in natural resources and even in anthropology. Summing Up: Recommended." (M.G. Messina, CHOICE, Vol. 42 (5), January, 2005)

Towards an Understanding of Amazonian Dark Earthsp. 1
Anthrosols and Amazoniap. 1
Volume Overviewp. 4
Importance of the Dark Earth Investigationsp. 8
History, Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives of Geoecological Research Concerning the Origin of Amazonian Anthropogenic Dark Earths (Terra Preta)p. 9
Introductionp. 9
The Paradox of the Existence of Terra Pretap. 9
Geogenic Versus Anthropogenic Formation of Terra Pretap. 10
History of Geoecological Terra Preta Researchp. 11
Current Geoecological Knowledge About Terra Pretap. 12
Nutrient and Organic Matter Levels in Terra Preta Soilsp. 12
Stability of the Organic Matter In Terra Preta Soilsp. 12
Origin of Terra Preta Soils and Future Research Perspectivesp. 13
Origin of Enhanced Organic Matter Levelsp. 13
Origin of Enhanced Nutrient Levelsp. 14
Conclusionsp. 15
Referencesp. 15
Evolution of the Scientific Knowledge Regarding Archaeological Black Earths of Amazoniap. 19
Introductionp. 19
Hypotheses and Proposals for the Genesis of Archaeological Black Earth Soilsp. 20
General Morphological and Chemical Characteristics of ABE Sites in Amazoniap. 22
Morphological Characteristicsp. 22
Chemical Characteristicsp. 22
Conclusionsp. 26
Referencesp. 27
A Geographical Method for Anthrosol Characterization in Amazonia: Contributions to Method and Human Ecological Theoryp. 29
Introductionp. 29
Environmental Backgroundp. 30
Amazonian Ecosystemsp. 30
Human Ecology of Amazoniap. 30
Amazonian Dark Earthsp. 32
The Rio Negrop. 33
The History of Human Occupation on the Rio Negrop. 33
Material and Methodsp. 35
Geographic areap. 35
Identification, Characterization, and Classification of Black Earth Sitesp. 37
Site Sizep. 38
Total Phosphorusp. 38
Pedological Analysisp. 38
Correlating Site Class with Access to Critical Resourcesp. 39
Resultsp. 40
Characterizationand Classification of Black Earth Sitesp. 40
Assessing Relative Access to Critical Resourcesp. 45
Conclusionsp. 48
Referencesp. 50
Paleoriverine Features of the Amazon Lowlands: Human Use of the 'Arena Negra' Soils of Lake Charo, Northeastern Perup. 53
Introductionp. 53
Site Location andCharacteristicsp. 54
Early Use of the Yarinalesp. 57
Contemporary Agriculturep. 59
Non-Agricultural Resource Usep. 62
The Challenges of Future Usep. 62
Conclusionsp. 64
Referencesp. 65
Dark Earth in the Upper Amazonp. 67
Introductionp. 67
The Formation of Dark Earth Sitesp. 68
Dark Earth Sites and Settlement Density on the Central Amazonp. 73
Barrancoid Migrations Out of the Central Amazonp. 74
Barrancoid Sites on the Japurá and Caquetá Riversp. 77
Barrancoid Sites on the Ucayali Riverp. 78
Polychrome Migrations Out of the Central Amazonp. 79
Polychrome Sites on the Japurá and Caquetá Riversp. 80
Polychrome Sites on the Napo Riverp. 82
Polychrome Sites on the Ucayali Riverp. 83
Dark Earth and the Indigenous Peoples of the Japuráp. 84
Indigenous Peoples of the Japurá/Caquetáp. 85
Indigenous Peoples of the Ucayalip. 86
Tutishcainyo Traditionp. 86
Yarinacocha Traditionp. 86
Pacacocha Traditionp. 87
Cumancaya Traditionp. 88
Local Traditions on the Upper Pachiteap. 89
Indigenous Peoples of the Napo Riverp. 90
Conclusionsp. 90
Referencesp. 92
Organic Matter in Archaeological Black Earths and Yellow Latosol in the Caxiuanã, Amazonia, Brazilp. 95
Introductionp. 95
Materials and Methodsp. 96
Resultsp. 96
Discussionp. 109
Referencesp. 111
Sequential P Fractionation of Relict Anthropogenic Dark Earths of Amazoniap. 113
Introductionp. 113
Materials and Methodsp. 114
Study Sitesp. 114
Soil P Fractionation and Analysisp. 115
Results and Discussionp. 117
Extraction Efficiency by Sequential Fractionationp. 117
Phosphorus Distribution in Soil Pools of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Central Amazoniap. 118
Sources of P in Pre-Colombian Anthrosolsp. 120
Conclusionsp. 122
Referencesp. 122
The Timing of Terra Preta Formation in the Central Amazon: Archaeological Data from Three Sitesp. 125
Introductionp. 125
The Osvaldo Sitep. 126
The Hatahara Sitep. 129
The Lago Grande Sitep. 131
Conclusionsp. 132
Referencesp. 133
Semi-Intensive Pre-European Cultivation and the Origins of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Amazoniap. 135
Introductionp. 135
Potential Origin of Terra Mulatap. 136
Frequent Burning of Cleared Short Fallowp. 136
In-field Burningp. 137
Organic Amendmentsp. 139
Permanent Settlement and Dark Earthsp. 140
Conclusionsp. 141
Referencesp. 141
Identifying the Pre-Columbian Anthropogenic Input on Present Soil Properties of Amazonian Dark Earths (Terra Preta)p. 145
Introductionp. 145
Materials and Methodsp. 146
Site and Soil Descriptionp. 146
Methodsp. 147
Statistical Analysisp. 148
Results and Discussionp. 148
Soil Classificationp. 148
Soil Physical Parametersp. 149
Nutrient Statusp. 149
Stocks and Texture Dependence of TOC and Np. 154
Conclusionsp. 156
Referencesp. 157
Use of Space and Formation of Terra Preta: The Asurini do Xingu Case Studyp. 159
Introductionp. 159
The Asurini do Xingu and the Use of Space in the Kuatinemu Villagep. 159
Spatial Distribution and Fluxes of Material Used by the Asurini do Xingu in the Kuatinemu Village and Hypothesis on Terra Preta Formationp. 161
Future Study to Investigate Recent Terra Preta Formation by the Asurini do Xingu in the Kuatinemu Villagep. 166
Final Considerationsp. 167
Referencesp. 167
Research on Anthropogenic Dark Earth Soils. Could It Be a Solution for Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Amazon?p. 169
Introductionp. 169
The Importance of Terra Preta Researchp. 170
What We Know and Do Not Know About the Formation and Properties of ADE Soilsp. 172
Networking Activities in Terra Preta Researchp. 173
Activities of the Multi-Institutional and Multi-Disciplinary Cooperation of the TPN Groupp. 174
Institutions Within the TPN Groupp. 174
The Coordinating Committees and Homepages of the TPN Groupp. 175
Approaches to Terra Preta Research for Agronomic Applicationsp. 175
Fundamental Questions for the TPN Projectp. 176
Specific Objectives of the TPN Project and Their Justificationp. 177
Expected Results of the Cooperationp. 179
Referencesp. 180
Slash and Char: An Alternative to Slash and Burn Practiced in the Amazon Basinp. 183
Introductionp. 183
Carbon Emissions in Slash and Burn Agriculturep. 184
Black Carbon in Soil - Terra preta do Índiop. 185
Slash and Char as an Alternative to Slash and Burnp. 185
Alternative Slash and Char in Practicep. 186
Advantages of Slash and Charp. 189
Slash and Char Research Activitiesp. 191
Conclusionsp. 191
Referencesp. 192
Microbial Response to Charcoal Amendments of Highly Weathered Soils and Amazonian Dark Earths in Central Amazonia - Preliminary Resultsp. 195
Introductionp. 195
Material and Methodsp. 197
Study Designp. 197
Soil Sampling and Analysesp. 200
Statistical Analysesp. 202
Results and Discussionp. 202
Characteristics of ADE and Forest Soilsp. 210
Referencesp. 211
Subject Indexp. 213
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540007548
ISBN-10: 3540007547
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 216
Published: June 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.56