Not being of the West; being behind the West; not being modern enough; not being developed or industrialised, secular, civilised, Christian, transparent, or democratic - these descriptions have all served to stigmatise certain states through history.
Drawing on constructivism as well as the insights of social theorists and philosophers, After Defeat , first published in 2010, demonstrates that stigmatisation in international relations can lead to a sense of national shame, as well as auto-Orientalism and inferior status. Ayse Zarakol argues that stigmatised states become extra-sensitive to concerns about status, and shape their foreign policy accordingly.
The theoretical argument is supported by a detailed historical overview of central examples of the established/outsider dichotomy throughout the evolution of the modern states system, and in-depth studies of Turkey after the First World War, Japan after the Second World War, and Russia after the Cold War.
About the Author
Ayse Zarakol is an Assistant Professor of Politics at Washington and Lee University. She teaches courses on global politics, international security and political theory, and her research focuses on the social evolution of the international system and the integration of regions outside of the West into the modern international order.
'A highly sophisticated and impressive book that provides an important contribution to the role of identity in IR. By focussing on three key 'interstitial' states - Japan, Russia and Turkey - which have been located on the 'inferior' side of the 'established-outsider' organising principle of international society, Ayse Zarakol advances a novel understanding of IR that goes beyond extant constructivist and English School theories.' John M. Hobson, University of Sheffield
Series: Cambridge Studies in International Relations
Tertiary; University or College
Number Of Pages: 312
Published: 23rd December 2010
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 15.4
Weight (kg): 0.506