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Affective Computing : Mit Press - Rosalind W. Picard

Affective Computing

Mit Press

Paperback Published: 24th July 2000
ISBN: 9780262661157
Number Of Pages: 306
For Ages: 18+ years old

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The latest scientific findings indicate that emotions play an essential role in decision making, perception, learning, and more--that is, they influence the very mechanisms of rational thinking. According to Rosalind Picard, if we want computers to be genuinely intelligent and to interact naturally with us, we must give computers the ability to recognize, understand, even to have and express emotions. Part 1 of this book provides the intellectual framework for affective computing. It includes background on human emotions, requirements for emotionally intelligent computers, applications of affective computing, and moral and social questions raised by the technology. Part 2 discusses the design and construction of affective computers. Topics in Part 2 include signal-based representations of emotions, human affect recognition as a pattern recognition and learning problem, recent and ongoing efforts to build models of emotion for synthesizing emotions in computers, and the new application area of affective wearable computers.

"Compelling... Picard convincingly demonstrates that computers can also be designed to think about feelings and how to rationally act in light of them... A groundbreaking preface to a plausible direction in computer design." Norman Weinstein, Technology Review "Today's computers are cold, logical machines. They needn't be. In thisimportant book, Rosalind Picard presents a compelling image, not only ofhow machines might come to have emotions, but why they must. Emotions: notjust for animals and people." Donald A. Norman , Hewlett-Packard; Professor Emeritus, CognitiveScience, University of California, San Diego; Author of Things that makeus smart

Preface
Introduction
Songs vs. Laws
Limbic Perception
The Limbic-Cortical Tangle
Reevaluating Decision Making
The ThinkingFeeling Axis
Too Little Emotion Impairs Decision Making
Tests of Thinking and Intelligence
Affective Communication
Example: The Effective and Affective Tutor
Book Overview
Envisioning Affective Computing
Emotions Are Physical and Cognitive
Physical vs. Cognitive
The Wheelchair Scenario
Terminology
Physical Aspects of Emotion: Sentic Modulation
Facial Expression
Vocal Intonation
Motor Forms of Expression
Other Physiological Responses
Complicating Conditions: Physical Aspects of Emotion
"Person-independent" Emotion Recognition
Studies out of the Laboratory
Cognitive Aspects of Emotion
Primary vs. Secondary Emotions
Developing and Learning Emotions
Complicating Conditions: Cognitive Aspects of Emotion
Emotions and Creativity
Emotions and Memory
Intentional vs. Spontaneous Smiles
Inducement of Emotion
Summary
Affective Computers
Developing Emotions
Computers that Recognize Emotions
Evaluating Affect Recognition
Differences in Human and Computer Recognition
Affect Recognition, without other Affective Abilities?
Summary of Criteria for Recognition
Computers that Express Emotions
Evaluating Affect Expression
Differences in Human and Computer Expression
Affect Expression, without other Affective Abilities?
Summary of Criteria for Expression
Computers that "Have" Emotions
Emergent Emotions and Emotional Behavior
Fast Primary Emotions
Cognitively Generated Emotions
Emotional Experience
Body-Mind Interactions
Evaluating Performance
Summary of Components of an Emotion System
Computers with Minds and Bodies
Emotions and Consciousness
Systems that have Emotional Intelligence
Evaluating Emotional Intelligence
Differences in Human and Computer Emotional Intelligence
Example: Lottery Scenario
Eeyond Emotional Intelligence
A Note on Imitating vs. Duplicating
Summary
Applications of Affective Computing
Affective Mirror
Beyond Emoticons
Text to Speech
Helping Autistic People
Consumer Feedback
Points for Courage
Emotions in Learning
"No Pain, No Gain"
Classroom Barometer
Emotions on the Virtual Stage
Music: Listening to What you Like
"Fast Forward to the Interesting Part"
Agents that Learn your Preferences
Learning when to Interrupt
Small Talk
Animated Agent Faces
The Audience Performance
Film/Video
Sensitive Toys
Summary
Potential Concerns
Expectations in Interfaces
Juvenile Beginnings
Human Privacy
Accuracy, Lie Detection, and Computer Objectivity
Symmetry in Communication
Centralized Recognition and Control
Computers Acting Emotionally
Who or What is Responsible?
Computer Rights?
Considerations for the Computer Designer
Summary
Building Affective Computing
Affective Signals and Systems
Modeling an Affective System
A Signal Representation for Emotions and Moods
Ringing a Bell
Property of Response Decay
Property of Repeated Strikes
Property of Temperamental Influence
Property of Linearity and Time-Invariance
Property of Activation and Saturation
Property of Cognitive and Physical Feedback
Representing Mood
Example: Rafe
Summary of Properties
Physiological Signals
Summary
Recognizing and Expressing Affect
Key Issues for Characterizing Affective Patterns
Basic Emotions and Discrete Categories
Emotion Spaces and Continuous Dimensions
Universal vs. Person-Specific
Pure vs. Mixed
Modeling Affective Patterns
Recognizing and Synthesizing Facial Expressions
Synthesizing and Recognizing Affective Vocal Intonation
Combinations of Face and Voice
Physiological Pattern Recognition
Models for Affective Behavior
Additional Models and Learning
Summary
Emotion Synthesis
Emotion Synthesis via Cognitive Mechanisms
The Ortony Clore Collins (OCC) Cognitive Model
Poker-Playing Agents with Facial Expressions
Emotions and Moods for Animated Characters
Emotions in Social Relationships
Roseman's Cognitive Appraisal Model
Emotion Synthesis via Multiple Mechanisms
Four Elicitors for Emotion Synthesis
A Three-Layer Architecture
Emotions, Hormones, and Homeostasis
Synthesizing Emotion's Influences
Realizing Multiple Concerns
Emotions Influencing Learning and Behavior
Affective Decision Making
Emotions that Interact with Memory
Emotion as an Umbrella
Summary
Affective Wearables
Consumer Wearables
Augmenting Human Memory
Digital Disc Jockey
Prototype of an Affective Wearable Computer
Technology, Interface, and Human Factors Issues
Out of the Lab and into the World
Emotion Theory for Ambulatory People
Anxiety on the Move
Intimacy and Privacy
Summary
Summary
Does it Have to Have "Emotions"?
When Will we Have Affective Computing?
Manifesto
Summary
Notes
References
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780262661157
ISBN-10: 0262661152
Series: Mit Press
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 18+ years old
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 306
Published: 24th July 2000
Publisher: AMITY PUB CO
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.3 x 17.7  x 1.6
Weight (kg): 0.54