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Advances in Solar Energy Technology - H. P. Garg

Advances in Solar Energy Technology

Hardcover Published: 1987
ISBN: 9789027724328
Number Of Pages: 444

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This volume is the third in the series of the book entitled, 'Advances in Solar Energy Technology'. The purpose of writting this multiple volume book is to provide all the relevant latest information in the field of Solar Energy (Applied as well as theoretical) to serve as the best source material at one place. Attempts are made to discuss topics in depth to assist both the students (undergraduate, pos- graduate, Research Scholars) and the professionals (consulting, design, contracting firms). The third volume discusses the heating, agricultural and photovo1taic applications of Solar Energy. Chapter 1 deals with solar cookers, one of the important application area for developing countries. After discussing the history of solar cookers, eight types of direct solar cookers, two types of box solar cookers and two types of advanced solar cookers are discussed in detail. The performance studies carri~d out on direct type and on box type solar cookers are also presented. A test procedure for rating a box type solar cooker is also introduced. The limitations and advantages of various cookers are discussed briefly in the chapter. Desalinated water for drinking purposes, for industrial and agricultural applications is required. The topic of Solar Distillation is discussed in detail in chapter two. Solar Distillation has a long history and in this chapter various kind of solar stills like conventional solar still, tilted tray solar still, wick type solar still, mUltiple effect diffusion solar still, multistage flash distillation, etc.

1 Solar Cookers.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 History of solar cookers.- 1.3 Solar cooking.- 1.4 Types of solar cooker.- 1.5 Direct or focussing type solar cooker.- 1.5.1 Wisconsin solar cooker.- 1.5.2 Umbrella type solar cooker.- 1.5.3 Paraboloidal type solar cooker.- 1.5.4 Fresnel reflector type cooker.- 1.5.5 Fixed soil-cement spheriodal reflector solar cooker.- 1.5.6 Light weight molded aggregate reflector type solar cooker.- 1.5.7 Multi-mirror or multi-facet type solar cooker.- 1.5.8 Cylindro-parabolic solar cooker.- 1.6 Indirect or box type solar cooker.- 1.6.1 Solar hot box cooker.- 1.6.2 Solar oven.- 1.7 Advanced solar cookers.- 1.7.1 Heat transfer system type solar cooker.- 1.7.2 Energy storage type solar cookers.- 1.8 Performance of solar cookers.- 1.8.1 Direct type solar cooker.- 1.8.2 Box type solar cooker.- 1.9 Testing of solar cooker.- References.- 2 Solar Desalination.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 History.- 2.3 Single effect basin type solar still.- 2.3.1 Types of single effect basin still.- 2.3.2 Basics of solar still.- 2.3.3 Performance prediction of basin-type still.- 2.3.4 Experiments on solar stills.- 2.4 Tilted tray solar still.- 2.5 Wick type solar still.- 2.6 Multiple effect diffusion solar still.- 2.7 Multistage flash distillation.- References.- 3 Solar Food Drying.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 History of solar drying.- 3.3 Basics of solar drying.- 3.4 Types of solar dryers.- 3.4.1 Natural convection or direct type solar dryers.- 3.4.1.1 Rack type solar dryer.- 3.4.1.2 Solar cabinet or box dryer.- 3.4.1.3 Greenhouse type solar dryer.- 3.4.2 Indirect type solar dryers.- 3.4.2.1 Chimney type paddy dryer.- 3.4.2.2 Fruit and vegetable dryer.- 3.4.2.3 Solar wind ventilated dryer.- 3.4.3 Forced circulation type dryers.- 3.4.3.1 Bin type grain dryers.- 3.4.3.2 Tunnel or belt dryers.- 3.4.3.3 Solar assisted or hybrid dryers.- 3.4.3.4 Solar timber drying.- 3.5 Theory and simulation models.- 3.5.1 Single layer drying.- 3.5.2 Deep-bed grain drying.- 3.5.2.1 Logarithmic model.- 3.5.2.2 Partial differential equation model.- (A) Fixed bed model.- (B) Cross flow model.- (C) Concurrent flow model.- (D) Counter-flow model.- 3.6 Energy requirements for grain drying.- References.- 4 Solar Powered Water Pump.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 History of solar pumps.- 4.3 Components of solar energy pumps.- 4.3.1 Collector type.- 4.3.2 Storage type.- 4.3.3 Heat engine.- 4.3.4 Working Fluid.- 4.4 Typical solar pump systems.- 4.4.1 The Coolidge, Arizona, 150 KW solar thermal irrigation pump..- 4.4.2 Gila Bend, Phoenix, Arizona, 37 KW solar powered irrigation pump.- 4.4.3 Wi1lard, New Mexico, 19 KW solar thermal water pump.- 4.4.4 SOFRETES solar pump.- 4.4.5 Bake 1, Senegal, 32.4 KW solar powered irrigation system.- 4.4.6 TRISAIA CNEN, Rome, Italy, 3 KW solar water pumping plant.- 4.4.7 Special solar pumps.- 4.4.8 Mead, Nebraska, 25 KW photovoltaic powered irrigation pump..- References.- 5 Solar Greenhouses.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 History.- 5.3 Basics of plant growth.- 5.3.1 Light intensity.- 5.3.2 Temperature.- 5.3.3 Humidity.- 5.3.4 Air movement.- 5.3.5 Carbon dioxide.- 5.3.6 Nutrients.- 5.3.7 Watering.- 5.4 Greenhouse design.- 5.4.1 Orientation and tilt.- 5.4.2 Modes of heat transfer.- 5.4.3 Glass or plastic greenhouses.- 5.4.4 Heat storage in the greenhouse.- 5.5 Energy conservation techniques.- 5.6 Heating and cooling of greenhouses.- 5.7 Typical greenhouse designs.- 5.7.1 The Brace greenhouse design.- 5.7.2 A low energy Australian greenhouse.- 5.7.3 The Rutgers university solar greenhouse.- 5.7.4 A commercial solar greenhouse at Tennessee.- 5.7.5 New Alchemy Institute solar passive greenhouse.- 5.7.6 The KISR greenhouse for warm climates.- 5.7.7 UAE plastic greenhouse for warm climates.- 5.7.8 Residential attached greenhouse.- 5.8 Performance prediction of crop yield and thermal environment in greenhouse.- References.- 6 Solar Cells.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 History.- 6.3 Fundamentals of photovoltaic conversion.- 6.3.1 Semiconductor materials.- 6.3.2 Photon energy.- 6.3.3 Electron hole concentration and Fermi level.- 6.3.4 A p-n junction.- 6.3.5 Absorption in a semiconductor.- 6.3.6 Solar cell materials.- 6.4 Efficiency losses.- 6.4.1 Reflection losses.- 6.4.2 Shade due to current collection grid.- 6.4.3 Incomplete absorption of photon energy.- 6.4.4 Excess photon energy loss.- 6.4.5 Collection loss.- 6.4.6 Voltage factor loss.- 6.4.7 Curve factor loss.- 6.4.8 Series and shunt resistance loss.- 6.5 Efficiency of solar cell.- 6.6 Basic modelling of solar cells.- 6.6.1 The p-n junction.- 6.6.2 The heterojunction.- 6.6.3 Metal semiconductor junctions.- 6.7 Silicon solar cells.- 6.7.1 Purification of silicon.- 6.7.2 Methods of growing crystal.- 6.7.2.1 The Czochralski (CZ) process.- 6.7.2.2 Heat exchanger method (HEM).- 6.7.2.3 Ribbon technology (EFG).- 6.7.2.4 The dendritic Web method (WEB).- 6.7.2.5 Silicon or Ceramic (SOC) method.- 6.7.2.6 SEMIX method.- 6.7.2.7 Zone refining process.- 6.7.2.8 Other methods.- 6.7.3 Silicon wafers to silicon solar cells.- 6.7.3.1 Surface preparation.- 6.7.3.2 Dopants diffusion.- 6.7.3.3 Grid formation.- 6.7.3.4 Antireflective coating.- 6.7.3.5 Module design.- 6.7.4 Polycrystalline silicon cells.- 6.7.5 Amorphous silicon cells.- 6.7.6 High efficiency silicon cells.- 6.8 Gallium arsenide solar cells.- 6.9 CdS/Cu2S solar cells.- 6.10 Cadmium telluride solar cell.- 6.11 Photovoltaic sunlight concentrators.- References.- Appendices.- Appendix 1 Conversion factors.- Appendix 2 Physical properties of some solid materials.- Appendix 3 Physical properties of some building and insulating materials..- Appendix 4 Physical properties of some liquids..- Appendix 5 Physical properties of some liquid metals..- Appendix 6 Physical properties of saturated water..- Appendix 7 Physical properties of saturated steam..- Appendix 8 Physical properties of some gases..- Appendix 9 Physical properties of dry air at atmospheric pressure..- Apprndix 10 Freezing points of aqueous solutions..- Appendix 11 Properties of typical refrigerants..- Appendix 12 Extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance at mean Sun-Earth distance..- Author Index.

ISBN: 9789027724328
ISBN-10: 9027724326
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 444
Published: 1987
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.4 x 15.6  x 2.5
Weight (kg): 0.82