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Advances in Isotope Methods for the Analysis of Trace Elements in Man : Modern Nutrition - Malcolm Jackson

Advances in Isotope Methods for the Analysis of Trace Elements in Man

Modern Nutrition

By: Malcolm Jackson (Editor), Nicola Lowe (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 29th November 2000
ISBN: 9780849387302
Number Of Pages: 248

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There is increasing evidence that even minute amounts of trace elements can have profound effects on the human body. Advances in Isotope Methods for the Analysis of Trace Elements in Man describes new methods that are being developed to understand normal and abnormal trace element nutrition and metabolism.
This book includes a wealth of practical advice, encompassing all aspects of isotope methodology, such as the latest developments of analysis techniques for both stable and radioactive isotopes, issues in study design, current cost of isotopes, and analysis. It provides both a historical review of what has been done in the past and details of current techniques and applications.
> This state-of-the-art collection from leading experts in the field from Europe and the United States makes a strong case for the practice and advancement of this critical health care tool.

Advances in Stable-isotope Methodology
Historyp. 1
First Use of Stable Isotopes with Humans--Deuterium and [superscript 15]Np. 2
Use of Mass Spectrometry for Mineral Stable-isotope Researchp. 2
Using Stable Isotopes to Study Trace-element Metabolismp. 3
Advantages and Disadvantagesp. 3
Stable-isotope Elements Available for Researchp. 4
Instrumentation for Mineral Stable-isotope Researchp. 8
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)p. 9
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)p. 9
Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS)p. 9
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)p. 10
Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry (FAB-MS)p. 11
Stable-isotope Dosage, Preparation, and Administrationp. 12
Practical Strategies for Conducting Stable-isotope Tracer Studiesp. 14
Zincp. 14
Ironp. 17
Appendix--Stable-isotope Suppliersp. 18
Referencesp. 19
Advances in Radioisotope Methodology
Introductionp. 23
Radioisotopesp. 24
Whole-body Counting Techniquesp. 28
Whole-body Countingp. 28
Whole-body Counting Applicationsp. 29
Metabolism and Biological Turnover Ratep. 29
Absorption Studiesp. 30
Equipment and Technological Developmentp. 31
Body Imaging Techniquesp. 34
Indirect Measurements of Absorption or Metabolismp. 35
Tissue Retentionp. 35
Urinary Excretionp. 36
Fecal Monitoringp. 38
Equipment and Technological Developmentp. 38
Conclusionp. 39
Referencesp. 39
Tracer-to-tracee Ratio for Compartmental Modelling of Stable-isotope Tracer Data
Introductionp. 43
Single-pool Tracer Kinetics and Measurementp. 44
Tracer-to-tracee Ratio from Mass Spectrometry Measurementsp. 47
Multi-pool Tracer Kinetics and Measurementp. 50
The Multiple Tracer Casep. 52
A Test of the Endogenous-constant, Steady-state Assumptionp. 54
Software Tool: TTRMp. 54
Conclusionp. 56
Referencesp. 56
Methods for Analysis of Trace-element Absorption
General Introductionp. 60
Use of Isotopesp. 60
Methodsp. 60
Definition of Absorptionp. 61
Ironp. 62
Introductionp. 62
Normalization of Iron Absorption Datap. 62
Hemoglobin Incorporationp. 63
Whole-body Countingp. 64
Fecal Monitoringp. 64
Plasma Appearance/Disappearancep. 65
In vitro (Caco-2 Cells)p. 65
Conclusionp. 66
Copperp. 66
Introductionp. 66
Fecal Monitoringp. 66
Plasma Appearancep. 67
Whole-body Countingp. 67
Conclusionp. 68
Zincp. 68
Introductionp. 68
Whole-body Countingp. 68
Fecal Monitoringp. 69
Urinary Monitoringp. 70
Plasma Appearance/Disappearancep. 70
Use of Simulation to Predict Absorptionp. 71
Whole-gut Lavage Techniquep. 71
In vitro (Caco-2 Cells)p. 72
Conclusionp. 72
Seleniump. 72
Introductionp. 72
Fecal Monitoringp. 74
Plasma Appearance/Disappearancep. 74
Whole-body Countingp. 75
Urinary Monitoringp. 75
Conclusionp. 76
Referencesp. 76
Kinetic Studies of Whole-body Trace-element Metabolism
Introductionp. 81
General Considerations in Study Designp. 82
Isotope Dosep. 82
Sampling Strategyp. 82
Free-Living or Metabolic Unitp. 83
Compartmental Modellingp. 83
General Assumptionsp. 84
Specific Examples of Isotope Turnover Studiesp. 85
Zincp. 85
Copperp. 86
Seleniump. 88
Conclusionp. 89
Referencesp. 90
Stable-isotope Methods for the Investigation of Iron Metabolism in Man
Introductionp. 93
Iron Metabolism in Relation to the Design of Stable-isotope Protocolsp. 94
Feasibility Issuesp. 95
Analytical Methodsp. 99
Neutron Activation Analysisp. 99
Mass Spectrometryp. 100
Summary of Current Analytical Capabilitiesp. 101
Selected Applicationsp. 102
Relationship between Mucosal Absorption and Hemoglobin Incorporation of Dietary Ironp. 102
Issues of Dietary Availability of Ironp. 103
Conclusionp. 104
Referencesp. 105
Use of Isotopes in the Assessment of Zinc Status
Introductionp. 109
Isotopic Techniquesp. 111
Short-term Two-compartment Modelp. 112
Simplified Techniques to Measure the Exchangeable Zinc Poolp. 113
Conclusionp. 113
Referencesp. 114
Copper Status and Metabolism Studied with Isotopic Tracers
Introductionp. 117
Backgroundp. 118
Copper Statusp. 118
Isotopic Tracersp. 119
Radioactive Tracersp. 119
Stable-isotope Tracersp. 120
Methods of Stable-isotope Analysisp. 120
Neuron Activation Analysisp. 120
Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometryp. 120
Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometryp. 121
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometryp. 121
Multiple Stable-isotope Labellingp. 121
Studies Using Isotopic Tracers of Copperp. 122
Conclusionp. 123
Referencesp. 123
Use of Stable Isotopes of Selenium to Investigate Selenium Status
Introductionp. 130
Dietary Selenium and Its Metabolismp. 130
Sources and Daily Intakesp. 130
Chemical Form and Bioavailabilityp. 131
Metabolism of Seleniump. 132
The Role of Selenium in the Bodyp. 133
Selenium and Diseasep. 133
Selenium Deficiency and Diseasep. 133
Selenium and Cancerp. 134
Selenoproteinsp. 134
Intracellular Glutathione Peroxidases (EC 135
Cellular (Cystolic) GSHpxp. 135
Phospholipid Hydroperoxide GSHpxp. 135
Gastrointestinal GSHpxp. 136
Extracellular GSHpxp. 136
Plasma GSHpxp. 136
Iodothyronine Deiodinases (EC 136
Thioredoxin Reductase (EC 136
Selenium-binding Proteinp. 137
Othersp. 137
Assessment of Selenium Status and Use of Stable Isotopesp. 137
Status Assaysp. 137
Analytical Aspectsp. 138
Assays for GSHpx Activityp. 138
Measurement of Selenium Isotopesp. 139
Modelling of Selenium Body Poolsp. 140
Stable-isotope Studies with Low-to-medium Selenium Intakesp. 143
Stable-isotope Studies with High Selenium Intakesp. 144
Conclusionp. 145
Referencesp. 146
Use of Isotopes for Studies with Manganse, Chromium, and Molybdenum
Manganesep. 152
Introductionp. 152
Manganese Biochemistryp. 152
Radioactive Isotopes of Manganese and Studies of Manganese Essentialityp. 153
Studies with Laboratory Animals and Cultured Cellsp. 153
Distribution and Retention of Radioactive Manganese in Humansp. 154
Radioactive Methods of Determining Apparent Manganese Absorption in Humansp. 155
Radioactive Methods for Determining True Manganese Absorptionp. 156
The Use of Radioisotopes to Study Manganese/Iron Interactionsp. 158
Chromiump. 159
Introductionp. 159
Chemistry and Biochemistryp. 160
Radioactive Chromium in Human Studiesp. 160
Nutritional Studies with [superscript 51]Crp. 160
Stable Isotopes of Chromium in Human Studiesp. 161
Molybdenump. 161
Chemistry and Biochemistryp. 161
Radioactive Isotopes of Molybdenum in Human Studiesp. 161
Stable Isotopes of Molybdenum in Human Studiesp. 162
Summaryp. 162
Referencesp. 163
Trace-element Studies in Infants and Pregnant or Lactating Women
Introductionp. 167
Ironp. 170
Methodologyp. 170
Erythrocyte Incorporation and Iron Absorptionp. 173
Studies in Premature Infantsp. 173
Studies in Term Infantsp. 174
Human Milk and Infant Formulap. 174
Complementary Foodsp. 176
Iron Supplementsp. 177
Studies in Pregnant Womenp. 177
Zincp. 178
Zinc and Copperp. 180
Seleniump. 181
Chromiump. 182
Conclusionp. 183
Referencesp. 183
Stable-isotope Studies in the Elderly
Introductionp. 187
Practicalities of Working with Elderly Subjectsp. 188
Ethical Considerationsp. 188
Examples of Stable-isotope Studies in the Elderlyp. 189
Zinc Homeostasis in the Elderlyp. 189
Copper Homeostasis in the Elderlyp. 189
Selenium Status of the Elderlyp. 190
Conclusionp. 190
Acknowledgmentsp. 190
Referencesp. 191
Applications of Trace-element Studies in Developing Countries: Practical and Technical Aspects
Introductionp. 194
Applications of Isotope Studies in Developing Countriesp. 195
Supplementationp. 195
Fortificationp. 197
Dietary Strategiesp. 198
Practical Aspects of Implementing Isotope Studies in Developing Countriesp. 199
Securing Support within the Country at the National and Community Levelp. 199
Selecting the Study Designp. 200
Assessing the Nutritional and Health Status of the Study Participantsp. 201
Assessing Levels of Trace Elements and Absorption Modifiers in the Habitual Diets of Study Participantsp. 203
Assessing Food Intakesp. 203
Compiling a Local Food Composition Table for Use in a Developing Countryp. 204
Assessing Intakes of Trace Elements and Absorption Modifiers in Habitual Dietsp. 204
Assessing Nutrient Intakes during the Metabolic Studyp. 205
Technical Aspects of Implementing Isotope Studies in Developing Countriesp. 206
Considerations When Selecting the Isotopic Techniquep. 207
Fecal Monitoringp. 207
Urinary Monitoringp. 208
Tissue Retentionp. 209
Plasma Tolerance Curves and Plasma Deconvolutionp. 209
Collecting, Preparing, and Processing the Metabolic Samples for Analysis of Native Trace Elements and Isotopic Enrichmentp. 210
Fecal Samplesp. 210
Urine Samplesp. 211
Blood Samplesp. 211
Conclusionp. 212
Referencesp. 212
Indexp. 217
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780849387302
ISBN-10: 0849387302
Series: Modern Nutrition
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 248
Published: 29th November 2000
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 16.51  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.5
Edition Number: 1

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