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Adaptive Signal Processing for Radar : Radar Library - Ramon Nitzberg

Adaptive Signal Processing for Radar

Radar Library

Hardcover Published: 19th November 1991
ISBN: 9780890065860
Number Of Pages: 328

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Walks the reader through adaptive approaches to radar signal processing by detailing the basic concepts of various techniques and then developing equations to analyze their performance. Finally, it presents curves that illustrate the attained performance.

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Radar Fundamentalsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Maximum Detection Rangep. 1
Conceptual System Implementationp. 3
System Performance Equationsp. 4
Probability of Target Detectionp. 7
Data Processor Tracking Constraintsp. 9
Range Ambiguityp. 10
Detection of Targets in Clutter by Doppler Processingp. 11
Delay Line Cancellerp. 13
Doppler Filter Bankp. 15
Noncoherent Summingp. 16
Operational Environmentsp. 19
Introductionp. 19
Thermal Noisep. 19
Clutterp. 20
Receiving Antenna Characteristicsp. 20
Jamming Noisep. 21
False Target Jamming (Pulse Jamming)p. 22
Combined Environmentsp. 22
Quantitative Environmental Considerationsp. 22
Ground Clutterp. 23
Weather Clutterp. 25
Noise Jammingp. 26
Target Characteristics and Detection Probabilityp. 26
Nonadaptive (Conventional) Receiving Antennasp. 29
Introductionp. 29
Linear Arraysp. 29
Array Factorp. 30
Beam Steeringp. 33
Sidelobe Reduction Weightingp. 34
Effect of Weighting Errorsp. 36
Planar Arraysp. 38
Reflector Antennasp. 39
Sidelobe Canceller (SLC)p. 41
Introductionp. 41
Sidelobe Cancellation Conceptp. 42
Residue Power Minimizationp. 44
Cancellation Degradation Effectsp. 46
Propagation Delay Effect on Cancellationp. 46
Channel Mismatch Effect on Jammer Cancellationp. 50
Multiple-Sidelobe Canceller (MSLC)p. 55
Introductionp. 55
MSLC Conceptp. 55
Minimum Required Number of Auxiliary Antennasp. 57
Two-Jammer Cancellation Performance as a Function of Number and Spacing of Auxiliary Antennasp. 58
Two Auxiliary Antennasp. 58
Four Auxiliary Antennasp. 62
Residue Minimizationp. 65
Optimum Weights Derivationp. 65
Simplified Examples of Optimum Weight Vector Performancep. 70
Thermal-Noise Environmentp. 71
Single Narrowband Jammerp. 71
Multiple Orthogonal Direction Vector Jammersp. 72
Nonzero Bandwidth Jammersp. 74
Optimum Weight Vector Performancep. 75
Performance Resultsp. 76
Optimum MSLC Weight Vector Estimationp. 87
Introductionp. 87
Analog Implementation of the LMS Algorithmp. 88
Multiplication by Mixing and Filteringp. 88
Residue-Auxiliary Correlationp. 90
MSLC Weight Computation Using LMS Algorithmp. 90
MSLC Weight Computation Using LMS Algorithm with Hard Limiterp. 94
Weight Computation for Single Auxiliary System Using Normalized LMS Algorithm (NLMS)p. 96
Digital Implementation of the LMS Algorithmsp. 97
MSLC Digital LMS Algorithmp. 97
Digital LMS Single-Auxiliary Analysisp. 98
Single-Auxiliary Analysis of Digital LMS Algorithm with Hard Limitingp. 100
Single-Auxiliary Analysis of Digital NLMS Algorithmp. 101
Additional Residue Power due to Weight Noise for Single Auxiliary Systemsp. 101
LMS Algorithmp. 102
LMS Algorithm with Limiterp. 104
NLMS Algorithmp. 105
Multiple Auxiliary Antenna Algorithm Analysisp. 107
Introductionp. 107
LMS Algorithmp. 107
MSLC LMS Convergence Analysisp. 108
Eigenvector Reviewp. 108
Decoupled MSLC LMS Convergence Equationsp. 111
LMS Algorithm Convergence Examplep. 113
Additional LMS Algorithm Convergence Examplesp. 119
Normalized LMS Algorithmp. 124
Preferred NLMS Algorithm Derivationsp. 125
Gradient Descent Equation Solutions and NLMSp. 127
NLMS Algorithm Convergence Analysisp. 129
Multiple Antenna NLMS Convergence Analysisp. 137
Additional NLMS Algorithm Convergence Examplesp. 138
LMS Algorithm Weight Noisep. 142
Thermal-Noise Environmentp. 144
Jammer Environmentp. 145
Detailed Analysis of LMS Weight Noisep. 146
LMS Algorithm Weight Noise Dependence on Eigenvalue Distributionp. 150
NLMS Algorithm Weight Noisep. 151
Thermal-Noise Environmentp. 152
Jammers Environmentp. 154
Comparison of NLMS and LMS Convergence Characteristicsp. 155
Detailed Analysis of NLMS Weight Noisep. 158
Sidelobe Blankingp. 161
Fundamental Sidelobe Blanker Analysisp. 162
Output Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise (SINR) Maximization Criterionp. 167
Introductionp. 167
SINR Maximization Criterion Derivationp. 167
Lagrangian Multiplier Derivationp. 168
Covariance Matrix Decomposition Derivationp. 169
Square Root Matrixp. 169
SINR Maximization via Square Root Matrixp. 170
Performance Examplep. 171
Similarity of the Residue Minimization and SINR Maximization Criteriap. 172
Performance Examples Analysisp. 173
Thermal-Noise Environmentp. 173
Single Narrowband Jammerp. 174
Additional Environmentsp. 175
Adaptive Array Architecturesp. 175
Element-Based Partial Adaptivityp. 175
Beam-Based Architecturep. 179
Algorithmsp. 180
LMS Algorithmp. 181
Direct Matrix Estimation or Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI) Algorithmp. 181
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of a Covariance Matrix for Gaussian Statisticsp. 182
Computational Proceduresp. 187
LMS Formulation for Non-Gaussian Statisticsp. 194
Implementation Issuesp. 195
SMI Performance Analysisp. 197
Constant False-Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processorsp. 203
Introductionp. 203
CFAR Conceptp. 204
Cell-Averaging CFAR (CACFAR)p. 206
Performance Analysis of Cell-Averaging CFAR (CACFAR) Processorp. 207
CFAR Loss of the CACFAR Technique in Homogeneous Environmentsp. 213
Nonhomogeneous Environmentsp. 215
CACFAR Performance in Mismatched Environmentsp. 216
Mismatched Environment Analysisp. 216
Mismatched Environment Examplep. 218
Ramp CFAR Techniques Environmentp. 221
Performance Analysis of Geometric Mean Normalizerp. 224
Step Function Environment CFAR Tecniquesp. 226
GOCFAR Performance Analysis for Homogeneous Environmentsp. 227
Mulitple-Target CFAR Techniquesp. 229
Multiple-Target Effect on CACFARp. 229
Censored CACFAR Performance Analysis in Homogeneous Environmentsp. 231
Performance Evaluation of the Order Statistic CFAR in Homogeneous Environmentsp. 233
Clutter-Map CFARp. 233
Sea and Weather Clutter CFAR Techniquesp. 236
Log-Normal Clutter CFARp. 238
Composite Clutter Modelp. 239
Multiple-Carrier-Frequency CFAR Techniquesp. 240
Nonfluctuating Target Analysisp. 243
Swerling 2 Target Analysisp. 245
Hierarchal CFAR Techniquesp. 245
Hierarchal CFAR Analysisp. 248
Implementation Effects on CFAR Techniquesp. 249
Effect of Correlated Reference Cellsp. 250
Analysis of Correlated Reference Cellsp. 250
Additional CFAR Loss due to Magnitude Detectionp. 251
CFAR Technique Summaryp. 252
Target Detection in Clutter-plus-Noise Environmentsp. 253
Introductionp. 253
Clutter Discriminantsp. 254
Definition of Parameters for Ground and Sea Clutterp. 256
Sea Clutterp. 257
Ground Clutterp. 260
Weather Clutterp. 260
Doppler Filtering Techniquesp. 262
MTI Delay Line Cancellersp. 262
Doppler Filter Banksp. 268
Optimum Doppler Filter Weightsp. 272
Approximate Performance of Nonadaptive and Adaptive Doppler Weightingp. 275
Optimum Doppler Filter Weights--Equation Detailsp. 275
Relative Performance of Nonadaptive and Adaptive Doppler Filtersp. 277
MTI Implementation Details and MTDp. 281
Combined CFAR-SMI Algorithmp. 286
Application of Modern Spectral Estimation Techniques to Doppler Processingp. 289
Introductionp. 289
Maximum Entropy Spectral Estimationp. 290
Theoretical Mismatch Lossp. 291
Estimation Lossp. 293
MEM Estimation Equationsp. 296
Operations Count Implementation Considerationsp. 298
Indexp. 303
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890065860
ISBN-10: 0890065861
Series: Radar Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 328
Published: 19th November 1991
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.2
Weight (kg): 0.65