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Adaptive Herbivore Ecology : From Resources to Populations in Variable Environments - R.Norman Owen-Smith

Adaptive Herbivore Ecology

From Resources to Populations in Variable Environments

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Published: 1st July 2002
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The adaptation of herbivore behaviour to seasonal and locational variations in vegetation quantity and quality is inadequately modelled by conventional methods. Norman Owen-Smith innovatively links the principles of adaptive behaviour to their consequences for population dynamics and community ecology, through the application of a metaphysiological modelling approach. The main focus is on large mammalian herbivores occupying seasonally variable environments such as those characterised by African savannas, but applications to temperate zone ungulates are also included. Issues of habitat suitability, species coexistence, and population stability or instability are similarly investigated. The modelling approach accommodates various sources of environmental variability, in space and time, in a simple conceptual way and has the potential to be applied to other consumer-resource systems. This text highlights the crucial importance of adaptive consumer responses to environmental variability and is aimed particularly at academic researchers and graduate students in the field of ecology.

' ... an enjoyable and informative addition to the ecological literature. We are convinced others will find the book equally stimulating and useful.' Science '... an enjoyable and informative addition to the ecological literature.' Science Magazine

Acknowledgementsp. xi
Acronym and symbol conventionsp. xiii
Conceptual origins: variability in time and spacep. 1
Modelling philosophyp. 2
Herbivores and vegetationp. 4
Modelling technologyp. 10
Structure of the bookp. 10
Consumer-resource models: theory and formulationp. 13
Basic theoryp. 13
Descriptive population modelsp. 15
Demographically structured population modelsp. 20
Interactive consumer-resource modelsp. 21
Metaphysiological population modelsp. 29
Overviewp. 36
Resource abundance: intake response and time framesp. 38
Basic theoryp. 39
Within-patch feedingp. 42
Foraging spellsp. 47
Daily food intakep. 52
Half-saturation level for intakep. 53
Allometry of food intakep. 55
Influences on the form of the intake responsep. 56
Overviewp. 57
Resource distribution: patch scales and depletionp. 61
Feeding sitesp. 62
Patch acceptancep. 63
Patch departurep. 65
Foraging areasp. 75
Habitat typesp. 77
Waterpoint restrictionsp. 79
Selectivity in foragingp. 80
Overviewp. 83
Resource quality: nutritional gain and diet choicep. 85
Diet breadth modelp. 86
Palatability classesp. 92
Evaluating the diet breadth modelp. 97
Form of the nutritional gain responsep. 105
Overviewp. 108
Resource constraints: physiological capacities and costsp. 110
Linear programming modelsp. 111
Digestive capacityp. 116
Metabolic satiationp. 125
Thermal tolerancep. 127
Constraints versus cost-benefit isoclinesp. 131
Truncation of the intake responsep. 133
Overviewp. 134
Resource allocation: growth, storage and reproductionp. 136
Relative growth potentialp. 137
Storagep. 142
Growth versus storagep. 151
Reproductionp. 153
Senescencep. 158
Flux- versus state-dependent mortalityp. 159
Overviewp. 160
Resource production: regeneration and attritionp. 162
General production functionp. 163
Grass production modelp. 165
Browse production modelp. 177
Resource-related dynamics for plantsp. 180
Overviewp. 182
Resource competition: exploitation and density dependencep. 184
Stocking density modelsp. 185
Growth potentialp. 188
Alternative models of resource productionp. 191
Competitive distributionsp. 202
Resource versus density dependencep. 203
Overviewp. 204
Resource-dependent mortality: nutrition, predation and demographyp. 205
Mortality functionp. 206
Observed mortality patternsp. 209
Predationp. 224
State-dependent mortalityp. 227
Demographic structurep. 228
Overviewp. 230
Habitat suitability: resource components and stocking densitiesp. 232
Determinants of browser abundancep. 233
Range condition and grazer stocking densitiesp. 244
Generic resource typesp. 253
Overviewp. 257
Resource partitioning: competition and coexistencep. 264
Lotka-Volterra modelp. 265
Competitive habitat partitioningp. 266
Exploitation competition modelp. 269
Size difference for coexistencep. 279
Ecomorphological distinctionsp. 281
Tradeoffs between facilitation and competitionp. 288
Overviewp. 295
Population dynamics: resource basis for instabilityp. 301
Interactive herbivore-vegetation dynamicsp. 302
Soay sheep examplep. 317
Other ungulate populationsp. 329
Alternative modelling approachesp. 330
Overviewp. 332
An adaptive resource ecology: foundation and prospectsp. 335
Retrospective reviewp. 335
Prospectsp. 337
Broader issuesp. 341
Overviewp. 345
Referencesp. 346
Indexp. 371
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521810616
ISBN-10: 0521810612
Series: Cambridge Studies in Ecology
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 392
Published: 1st July 2002
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 15.2  x 2.6
Weight (kg): 0.74