This book provides an integrated account of the phenomenon of acidity set against the background of the acidic substances which are of major significance in the chemical industry and commerce. Acidic nature of the Bronsted type is the resultant principal theme: this is discussed in connection with its manifestations in solid, liquid and gas phases, giving a full perspective. Liquid acids and aqueous solutions of acids have particularly interesting properties on account of the hydrogen bonding which also exerts a strong influence on their bulk structures, as revealed by modern spectroscopic and scattering techniques. The book discusses quantitative aspects of acidic strength and the types of numerical scales upon which this may be rated and the techniques available for its assessment. Indicators provide one of the main means of assessing proton transfer ability for both solid and liquid phase acids and thus receive detailed attention as the basis of common ratings of Bronsted acidic strength.
More specialized techniques, such as thermal desorption spectroscopy for solid surfaces and infrared absorption, Raman and NMR spectroscopic methods for both liquids and solids, also receive attention. Methods for the measurement of amounts of acid (e.g. titration, absorptiometry) are also discussed. The final chapter of the book presents a series of insights into the importance of acids in industry. Most of the sections deal with the usages of major acids, highlighted on the basis of either the large scale of the processes concerned or because of a particular interest as an essential application of acidic nature. Acid rain, the inadvertent generation of acidity and a pollution problem, is also covered. "Acidity and Properties of Major Industrial Acids" aims to be a valuable source of reference for students and to those scientists concerned with this important category of industrial substances, including analysts, pollution control officers and those involved with process development quality control and waste disposal.
Introduction. Molecules and phases. Dissociative ionization. Theory and applications of indicators. Aqueous acidic solutions on the pH range. Concentrated aqueous solutions of Acids. Acidic solids: Y-Type zeolites. Industrial perspectives.