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Access to Chemistry - Avril Higton

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Published: 30th July 1999
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This text has been specifically designed to prepare people with previously limited chemical knowledge for entrance into science related courses (such as Foundation and Access courses) which involve chemistry, in higher education. Until now there have been no texts available for use on these courses and this book fills that gap. Access to Chemistry effectively forms a self-study course, which is split into separate modules and units covering the full spread of concepts required for those needing a basic knowledge of chemistry. The material is presented in a friendly and easy-to-use manner which allows the student to pace their acquisition of knowledge and gain increasing confidence in order to succeed in understanding essential relevant concepts. Other useful features of this book include starter diagnostic tests, worked examples and self study tests (with answers) at the end of each unit. In addition to Access or Foundation course students and their tutors, to whom this book will prove essential, it will have an appeal also as a revision text for those needing a 'refresher' after a break in the subject. In addition, it will be of interest to members of the general public who wish to better educate themselves on chemical matters, as it provides a clear and useful insight into areas such as health, home chemicals, business market trends and gardening.

"... a clear, well thought-out book ..." * School Science Review, Vol 81, No 296, March 2000 *

Aimsp. xvii
Format of Materialsp. xviii
Study Guidep. xix
Building Blocks of Matter
Particles and Propertiesp. 3
Propertiesp. 5
Change of Statep. 5
Particlesp. 7
State and change of statep. 7
Evaporationp. 9
Diffusionp. 10
Dissolvingp. 11
Pressurep. 11
Answers to diagnostic testp. 14
Further questionsp. 15
Inside the Atomp. 17
Elementsp. 18
Compoundsp. 19
Atomsp. 20
Smaller Particlesp. 20
Electronic Configurationp. 21
Further Readingp. 22
Answers to diagnostic testp. 23
Further questionsp. 23
Atoms, Elements and Orderp. 25
Three Elementary Particlesp. 26
Symbolsp. 26
Atomic and Mass Numbersp. 27
Isotopes and Relative Atomic Massp. 27
Periodicityp. 28
Answers to diagnostic testp. 31
Further questionsp. 31
The Nucleus of the Atomp. 33
The Discovery of Radioactivityp. 34
Types of Radiationp. 34
Transmutation of Elementsp. 35
Half-lifep. 36
Answers to diagnostic testp. 39
Further questionsp. 39
Electronsp. 41
Electrons in Atomsp. 42
Absorption Spectrap. 42
Why Do Elements Only Absorb Certain Wavelengths?p. 43
More Accurate Spectroscopes, and Quantum Numbersp. 44
Answers to diagnostic testp. 47
Further questionsp. 47
Chemical Bonding in Materials
Atoms and lonsp. 51
Why Atoms Combinep. 52
How Atoms Combinep. 52
Answers to diagnostic testp. 56
Further questionsp. 58
Molecules and Sharing Electronsp. 59
Sharing Electronsp. 60
Bondsp. 60
Equal and Unequal Sharesp. 61
Shapes of Orbitals and Bondsp. 62
Answers to diagnostic testp. 64
Further questionsp. 65
Bonding and Propertiesp. 67
Latticesp. 68
Giant Covalent Structuresp. 68
Summaryp. 69
Giant Metallic Structuresp. 69
Different Bonding, Different Propertiesp. 70
Melting and boiling pointsp. 70
Electrical conductivityp. 71
Solubility in waterp. 71
Hydrogen bondingp. 72
Answers to diagnostic testp. 73
Further questionsp. 73
Electronic Configuration and Reactivityp. 75
Loss of Electronsp. 76
Gain of Electronsp. 77
Trends in the Periodic Tablep. 78
Reactivity Seriesp. 78
Answers to diagnostic testp. 82
Further questionsp. 82
Oxidation Numbersp. 83
Oxidation Numbers and Groupp. 84
Oxidation Numbers and Formulaep. 85
The Transition Metalsp. 85
Multi-atom lonsp. 88
Summary of Oxidation and Oxidation Numbersp. 89
Answers to diagnostic testp. 90
Further questionsp. 90
Different Types of Chemical Reaction
Synthesis and Combiningp. 93
Binary Compounds by Joining Elements Togetherp. 94
Fuels Combining with Oxygenp. 95
Organic Synthesisp. 95
Answers to diagnostic testp. 96
Further questionsp. 96
Decomposition - The Breaking Up of Compoundsp. 97
Thermal Decompositionp. 99
Electrolysis of Molten Compoundsp. 101
Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutionsp. 102
Answers to diagnostic testp. 104
Further questionsp. 104
Exchange Chemical Reactionsp. 105
Displacementp. 106
Acids and Metalsp. 107
Ion Exchange Reactionsp. 108
Neutralisation of Acidsp. 109
Summary of Chemical Reactions of Acids and Alkalisp. 110
Answers to diagnostic testp. 111
Further questionsp. 111
Some Further General Characteristics of Chemical Reactionsp. 113
Heat Energyp. 114
Electricityp. 114
Redox Reactionsp. 116
Answers to diagnostic testp. 118
Further questionsp. 118
Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Reactions
Mathematical Conceptsp. 121
Introductionp. 122
General pointsp. 122
Standard Form (Exponential) Numbers and Powers of 10p. 122
Rules for working with exponential numbers or numbers in standard formp. 123
Calculations with Numbers in Standard Formp. 124
Adding and subtractingp. 124
Multiplication and divisionp. 125
Using a Calculatorp. 125
Work with numbers written in standard formp. 125
Work with logarithmsp. 126
Significant figures, decimal places, and 'rounding up'p. 127
Rearranging Equationsp. 127
Treat both sides of the equation the same wayp. 128
Cancelling outp. 129
Graphsp. 129
Plotting a graphp. 129
Drawing the line - the best fitp. 130
The gradient or slopep. 130
Using the graphp. 131
The exponential graphp. 131
Unitsp. 132
Answers to diagnostic testp. 134
Further questionsp. 134
Extension - Theory of Logarithmsp. 135
Logarithms to base 10 (abbreviated to log[subscript 10] or, simply, log)p. 135
Logarithms to the base e (natural logs, abbreviated to In[subscript e])p. 136
Chemical Laws - The Law of Constant Composition and the Law of Conservation of Massp. 137
The Law of Constant Compositionp. 139
The Law of Conservation of Massp. 139
Balancing Equationsp. 141
Rules for Balancing Equationsp. 142
Further hints to help youp. 143
Answers to diagnostic testp. 147
Further questionsp. 147
Reacting Quantities and the Molep. 149
Introduction to the Molep. 151
For molecules and ionic compoundsp. 152
Using Molesp. 153
Writing a chemical recipep. 153
Working out a product yieldp. 154
Percentage Yieldsp. 155
Molar Excess and Limiting Quantitiesp. 156
Questionsp. 157
Answersp. 157
Percentage Composition, and using the Law of Constant Composition to find the Empirical and Chemical Formula of a Compoundp. 158
Difference between the chemical formula and the empirical formulap. 159
Reverse calculations; percentage composition from formulap. 160
Answers to diagnostic testp. 161
Further questionsp. 161
Strengths of Solutionsp. 163
Units of Volume and Concentrationp. 164
Units of volumep. 164
Concentrationp. 164
Diluting Solutionsp. 167
Saturated Solutionsp. 168
Concentrated acidsp. 169
Diluting concentrated acidsp. 169
Other Units for Concentrationp. 169
Parts per million (ppm)p. 170
Parts per billion (ppb)p. 170
Percent by massp. 170
Percent by volumep. 171
Answers to diagnostic testp. 172
Further questionsp. 172
Gasesp. 173
Introductionp. 175
Unitsp. 176
Pressurep. 176
Volumep. 177
Temperaturep. 177
Standard temperature and pressure (STP)p. 177
Molar volumep. 177
Kinetic Theoryp. 178
Ideal Gases and the Gas Lawsp. 178
Boyle's Law: the effect of pressure on the volume of a gas at constant temperaturep. 179
Charles's Law: the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas at constant pressurep. 179
The effect of temperature on the pressure of a gas at constant volumep. 180
The Combined Gas Lawp. 180
The Ideal Gas Equation - Calculating the Mass and Relative Molecular Mass of a Gasp. 182
Changing the Density of a Gasp. 184
Partial Pressuresp. 184
Answers to diagnostic testp. 185
General Properties of Solutionsp. 187
Introductionp. 188
Types of Solutionp. 190
Factors Affecting Solubilityp. 190
Properties of the solute and solventp. 190
Temperaturep. 190
Pressurep. 191
Factors Affecting Rate of Solutionp. 191
Temperaturep. 191
Rate of stirringp. 191
Particle sizep. 191
Ionic Salts - Solubility Rulesp. 192
Recrystallisationp. 192
Colligative Propertiesp. 193
Vapour pressurep. 193
Raising the boiling pointp. 194
Lowering the freezing pointp. 194
Osmotic pressurep. 194
Colloidal Dispersionsp. 196
Answers to diagnostic testp. 198
Chemical Reactions, Equilibrium and Energy Changes
Energy Changesp. 201
Introduction to Energy Changesp. 203
Energy Changes in Chemical Reactionsp. 203
Collision Theoryp. 204
Summaryp. 205
Making and Breaking Bondsp. 205
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactionsp. 207
Exothermic reactionsp. 207
Endothermic reactionsp. 208
The Heat of Reactionp. 210
Activation Energyp. 211
Answers to diagnostic testp. 213
Further questionsp. 214
Measuring Rates of Reactionsp. 215
Introductionp. 217
Reactions happen at different ratesp. 217
The units used in the measurement of reaction ratesp. 217
Measuring the Rates of Chemical Reactionsp. 218
The reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acidp. 218
Measuring the rate of reactionp. 219
Calculating average rates of reactionp. 220
The reaction between sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acidp. 222
Different Methods used to Monitor the Progress of Some Reactionsp. 223
Answers to diagnostic testp. 224
Factors Affecting the Rate of Chemical Reactionsp. 227
Introduction to the Effect of Temperature on Reactionsp. 229
The reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acidp. 229
The reaction between sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acidp. 229
The Effect of Changing the Concentration of Reactants in Solutionp. 231
The Effects of Pressure Change on the Rate of a Gaseous Reactionp. 232
The Effect on the Rate of Reaction of the Surface Area of Solid Reactantsp. 232
The Effects of Catalysts on the Rate of Reactionp. 234
What do we know about catalysts?p. 234
The physical state of catalystsp. 235
How do catalysts work?p. 236
'Negative' catalystsp. 236
Enzymes as catalystsp. 236
The kinetics of enzyme reactionsp. 238
Enzyme inhibitorsp. 239
Answers to diagnostic testp. 240
Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibriump. 241
Reversible and Non-reversible Reactions - Introductionp. 243
Systems at Equilibriump. 244
Physical equilibriump. 244
Chemical equilibriump. 244
Factors Affecting Systems at Equilibriump. 245
Removal of chemicals can affect the reactionp. 246
Effects of pressure changes on the equilibrium state in gaseous reactionsp. 246
The effect of temperature on the equilibrium statep. 247
The effect of catalysts on the equilibrium statep. 247
Some Industrial Processes that involve Equilibriump. 247
The Haber Processp. 248
The Contact Processp. 248
The Ostwald Processp. 250
The Law of Mass Actionp. 250
Answers to diagnostic testp. 253
Quantitative Aspects of Acid-Base Equilibriap. 255
Introductionp. 257
The Dissociation of Waterp. 257
The Measurement of pH, and the pH Scalep. 258
Calculating values of pHp. 258
Calculating the pH of alkaline solutionsp. 259
Detecting Acidity and Alkalinityp. 260
The formation of hydrogen ions, and the acid dissociation constantp. 260
Strong and weak acidsp. 261
The use of the pH scalep. 262
The Effect of Strong Acids and Alkalis on Living Organismsp. 262
Buffer solutionsp. 263
How do buffer solutions work?p. 264
Calculating the pH of a Buffer Solutionp. 265
The Effects of Buffers in the Bodyp. 266
The hydrogencarbonate systemp. 266
The phosphate buffer systemp. 266
The amino acids as buffersp. 267
Answers to diagnostic testp. 269
Extension -- What is the Connection between pH and pK[subscript a]?p. 270
Compounds of Carbon (1)
What's So Special about Carbon Compounds?p. 275
Introduction -- Organic Compounds All Around Usp. 276
So the Chemistry of Carbon IS Worth Knowing!p. 278
Making Order of the Millionsp. 278
Carbon in the Periodic Table?p. 279
Compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen -- The Hydrocarbonsp. 280
Summaryp. 281
Aliphatic and aromaticp. 281
Answers to diagnostic testp. 283
Further questionsp. 283
Compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen -- Alkanes and Alkenesp. 285
Alkanesp. 287
Naming systemp. 289
Propertiesp. 291
Alkenesp. 291
Comparison of Properties in the Alkane and Alkene Seriesp. 293
Melting and boiling pointsp. 293
What is meant by saturated and unsaturated carbon compounds?p. 295
Hydrocarbons as fuels ... combustionp. 295
Substitution and addition reactions with halogensp. 296
Reaction with hydrogen gasp. 298
Reactions with hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide gasp. 298
The cracking of alkanes and the polymerisation of alkenesp. 299
Answers to diagnostic testp. 303
Further questionsp. 304
Extension -- Some Explanations and Mechanismsp. 306
The detailed mechanism for the reaction of chlorine with methane in bright sunlightp. 306
Alkene + HBr mechanismp. 306
Aromatic Organic Chemistryp. 309
Introductionp. 310
Methylbenzene (Toluene)p. 311
Other Compounds of Benzenep. 312
Substitution Reactionsp. 313
Directing Group Preferencesp. 314
Answers to diagnostic testp. 316
Further questionsp. 317
Isomerismp. 319
Isomerismp. 321
Set 1 -- Structural Isomerismp. 321
Structural isomerism in hydrocarbonsp. 321
Functional group isomerism (a sub-group of structural isomerism)p. 325
Set 2 -- Stereo-isomerismp. 327
Optical isomerismp. 327
Stereo-isomerism in alkenes -- geometric or cis-trans isomerismp. 329
Answers to diagnostic testp. 331
Further questionsp. 333
Compounds of Carbon (2) -- Organic Compounds containing Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen
The Alcohols, C[subscript n]H[subscript 2n+1]OHp. 337
Introductionp. 338
Types of Alcoholsp. 339
Some ethers are isomeric with alcoholsp. 340
Some Reactions of Alcoholsp. 341
Oxidationp. 341
Dehydrationp. 342
Hydrationp. 343
Reduction of alcoholsp. 344
Ester formationp. 344
Substitution of an OH group with Cl using PCl[subscript 5] or SOCl[subscript 2]p. 345
Answers to diagnostic testp. 347
Further questionsp. 348
Carbonyl Compounds and Carboxylic Acidsp. 349
Carbonyl Compounds -- General Formula C[subscript n]H[subscript 2n]Op. 350
Some Properties of Aldehydes and Ketonesp. 350
Some Preparations of Aldehydes and Ketonesp. 352
Reactions of Carbonyl Compoundsp. 352
Addition reactionsp. 352
Reduction by addition of hydrogenp. 355
Oxidationp. 355
Carboxylic Acids -- General Formula C[subscript n]H[subscript 2n+1]COOHp. 358
General properties and acidityp. 358
Carboxylic acids with metalsp. 358
Ester formationp. 359
Other reactionsp. 359
The Strength of a Carboxylic Acidp. 359
Answers to diagnostic testp. 361
Further questionsp. 362
More advanced questionsp. 362
Extension -- Aldehydes and Ketones in Sugarsp. 363
Aminesp. 365
The Aminesp. 366
Substitution of the hydrogen atoms of ammonia, NH[subscript 3]p. 366
Hydrogen Bonding in Aminesp. 367
Aromatic Amines and Azo Compoundsp. 367
Amino Acidsp. 368
Condensation to make peptides and proteinsp. 369
Base Strengths of Aminesp. 370
Some Further Reactionsp. 371
Reactions with acidsp. 371
Summary of Reactionsp. 372
Answers to diagnostic testp. 373
Further questionsp. 374
Chemistry in Our Environmentp. 375
General Environmental Issuesp. 376
The Earth and its Atmospherep. 377
The Atmospherep. 378
Formation of ozonep. 378
Formation of ionsp. 378
Oxides of nitrogenp. 378
Any water or moisture also reactsp. 378
Photosynthesisp. 380
Fossil Fuels and Pollutionp. 380
What is the Greenhouse Effect?p. 381
Acid Rainp. 382
Acid Rain and Plant Growthp. 383
Solid Wastes and Other Materialsp. 383
Some examples of using wastep. 383
Conclusionp. 384
Answers to diagnostic testp. 385
Further questionsp. 386
Selected Answers to Further Questionsp. 387
Alphabetical List of Elementsp. 390
Greek Symbolsp. 391
Subject Indexp. 392
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780854045648
ISBN-10: 0854045643
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 418
Published: 30th July 1999
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 29.21 x 20.32  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 1.23