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Accents of English: Volume 3 : Beyond the British Isles - J. C. Wells

Accents of English: Volume 3

Beyond the British Isles

Paperback

Published: 7th June 1982
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Accents of English is about the way English is pronounced by different people in different places. Volume 1 provides a synthesizing introduction, which shows how accents vary not only geographically, but also with social class, formality, sex and age; and in volumes 2 and 3 the author examines in greater depth the various accents used by people who speak English as their mother tongue: the accents of the regions of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland (volume 2), and of the USA, Canada, the West Indies, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Black Africa and the Far East ( volume 3). Each volume can be read independently, and together they form a major scholarly survey, of considerable originality, which not only includes descriptions of hitherto neglected accents, but also examines the implications for phonological theory. Readers will find the answers to many questions: Who makes 'good' rhyme with 'mood'? Which accents have no voiced sibilants? How is a Canadian accent different from an American one, a New Zealand one from an Australian one, a Jamaican one from a Barbadian one? What are the historical reasons for British-American pronunciation differences? What sound changes are currently in progress in New York, in London, in Edinburgh? Dr Wells his written principally for students of linguistics, phonetics and English language, but the motivated general reader will also find the study both fascinating and rewarding.

An Introduction
Prefacep. xv
Typographical conventions and phonetic symbolsp. xvii
Aspects of accentp. 1
Linguistic and social variabilityp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Dialect and accentp. 2
Traditional-dialectp. 4
Geographical variationp. 8
Socio-economic classp. 13
Sex, ethnicityp. 18
Age: the time dimensionp. 23
Styles and rolesp. 25
Perceiving a stereotypep. 28
Projecting an imagep. 31
Standardsp. 34
What are the facts?p. 36
Accent phonologyp. 39
Why phonology?p. 39
The taxonomic-phonemic modelp. 41
Phonetic similarityp. 44
Non-contrastive distributionp. 45
Affricates and diphthongsp. 48
The phonological wordp. 50
Multiple complementation and neutralizationp. 52
Further difficulties with taxonomic phonemicsp. 54
Phonological rulesp. 57
Natural classesp. 59
A case in point: the velar nasalp. 60
Optional rules, variable rulesp. 64
Rule orderingp. 66
Polylectal and panlectal phonologyp. 69
How accents differp. 72
Introductionp. 72
Phonetic realizationp. 73
Phonotactic distributionp. 75
Phonemic systemsp. 76
Lexical distributionp. 78
Further considerationsp. 80
Consequences: rhymes, puns, and intelligibilityp. 81
Rhythmical characteristicsp. 86
Intonationp. 89
Voice qualityp. 91
Why accents differp. 93
Why innovations arisep. 93
System preservationp. 97
Splits and mergersp. 99
Regularizationp. 101
Why innovations spreadp. 103
The influence of literacyp. 106
External influencesp. 110
Altering one's accentp. 111
Sets and systemsp. 117
The reference accentsp. 117
Introductionp. 117
The vowel system of RPp. 118
The vowel system of GenAmp. 120
The two vowel systems comparedp. 122
RP and GenAm: further comparisonp. 124
Standard lexical setsp. 127
Kitp. 127
Dressp. 128
Trapp. 129
Lotp. 130
Strutp. 131
Footp. 132
Bathp. 133
Clothp. 136
Nursep. 137
Fleecep. 140
Facep. 141
Palmp. 142
Thoughtp. 144
Goatp. 146
Goosep. 147
Pricep. 149
Choicep. 150
Mouthp. 151
Nearp. 153
Squarep. 155
Startp. 157
Northp. 159
Forcep. 160
Curep. 162
Weak vowels: happy, lettER, commAp. 165
Systems; a typologyp. 168
Part-system Ap. 168
Part-system Bp. 171
Part-system Cp. 173
Part-system Dp. 175
The consonant systemp. 178
A typology for accents of Englishp. 181
Developments and processesp. 184
Residualismsp. 184
The Great Vowel Shiftp. 184
NG Coalescencep. 188
The velar fricativep. 189
Thought Monophthongingp. 191
The Long Mid Mergersp. 192
The Fleece Mergerp. 194
The Foot-Strut Splitp. 196
The Nurse Mergerp. 199
Pre-Fricative Lengtheningp. 203
Yod Droppingp. 206
Price and Choicep. 208
Long Mid Diphthongingp. 210
The Great Dividep. 211
British prestige innovationsp. 212
Vowels before /r/p. 213
R Droppingp. 218
R Insertionp. 222
Glide Cluster Reductionp. 228
Suffix vowelsp. 231
Bath and Clothp. 232
The Force Mergersp. 234
The realization of Goatp. 237
Smoothingp. 238
Some American innovationsp. 242
Vowels before /r/p. 242
Lot Unrounding; loss of distinctive lengthp. 245
Later Yod Droppingp. 247
Tapping and T Voicingp. 248
Some further British innovationsp. 252
H Droppingp. 253
Diphthong Shiftp. 256
Happy Tensingp. 257
L Vocalizationp. 258
Glottalizationp. 260
The -ing variablep. 262
Sources and further readingp. 264
Referencesp. 265
Indexp. 271
The British Isles
Prefacep. xv
Typographical conventions and phonetic symbolsp. xvii
Englandp. 279
RP revisitedp. 279
Varieties of RPp. 279
U-RPp. 280
Adoptive RPp. 283
Variability in mainstream RPp. 285
RP: systemic variabilityp. 287
RP: distributional variabilityp. 289
RP: realizational variabilityp. 291
RP: lexical-incidential variabilityp. 295
Near-RPp. 297
Londonp. 301
Introductionp. 301
The vowel systemp. 303
Monophthongs and centring diphthongsp. 305
The Diphthong Shiftp. 306
The Thought Splitp. 310
The Goat Splitp. 312
Vowel plus /l/p. 313
Further remarks on vowelsp. 317
The consonant system; [h]p. 321
Plosives: affrication, glottalling, tappingp. 322
Glottalling of other consonantsp. 327
Fricativesp. 328
Yod phenomenap. 330
Prosodic featuresp. 331
Literary Cockneyp. 332
The southp. 335
Introductionp. 335
East Anglia: vowelsp. 337
The Norwich vowel systemp. 340
East Anglia: consonants and prosodic featuresp. 341
The west country: rhoticity and its consequencesp. 341
The west country: other consonantsp. 343
The west country: vowelsp. 345
The Bristol vowel systemp. 348
The northp. 349
Introductionp. 349
The Strut wordsp. 351
The Bath wordsp. 353
Other vowelsp. 356
Two vowel systemsp. 363
Velar nasal plusp. 365
Yorkshire Assimilationp. 366
The consonant /r/p. 367
Other consonantsp. 370
Merseysidep. 371
Tynesidep. 374
The Celtic countriesp. 377
Walesp. 377
Introductionp. 377
Rhoticityp. 378
A typical vowel systemp. 380
Five possible extra contrastsp. 384
Further remarks on vowelsp. 386
Consonantsp. 387
Connected-speech variantsp. 391
Prosodic featuresp. 391
Sociolinguistics in Cardiffp. 392
Scotlandp. 393
Introductionp. 393
Scotsp. 395
Monophthongsp. 399
Diphthongsp. 405
Vowels before /r/p. 407
Consonantsp. 408
The Highlands and Islandsp. 412
Prosodic featuresp. 414
Sociolinguistic studiesp. 415
Irelandp. 417
Introductionp. 417
The vowel systemp. 418
Vowels before /r/p. 420
Short vowelsp. 421
Long vowelsp. 424
Diphthongsp. 425
Weak vowelsp. 427
Alveolar and dental stopsp. 428
The liquidsp. 431
Other consonantsp. 432
Processesp. 434
Prosodic featuresp. 436
The north: introductionp. 436
The north: vowel system and vowel lengthp. 438
The north: vowel qualityp. 440
The north: consonantsp. 445
The north: processesp. 447
The north: intonationp. 447
The north: accent and dialectp. 448
Summaryp. 449
Sources and further readingp. 451
Referencesp. 453
Indexp. 462
Beyond the British Isles
Prefacep. xv
Typographical conventions and phonetic symbolsp. xvii
North Americap. 467
GenAm revisitedp. 467
Introductionp. 467
The Thought-Lot Mergerp. 473
Further issues relating to Thought and Lotp. 475
Bath Raisingp. 477
Vowels before /r/p. 479
Other vowelsp. 485
Consonantsp. 488
Canadap. 490
Introductionp. 490
The vowel systemp. 492
The open back vowel(s)p. 493
Price, Mouth Raisingp. 494
Consonantsp. 495
Questions of incidencep. 496
Newfoundland: generalp. 498
Newfoundland: vowelsp. 498
Newfoundland: consonantsp. 500
New York Cityp. 501
Introductionp. 501
The vowel systemp. 503
Variable non-rhoticity and its consequencesp. 505
Nurse and Choicep. 508
Bath Raisingp. 510
Cloth-Thought Raisingp. 513
Lot Lengtheningp. 514
Alveolars and dentalsp. 515
Other consonantsp. 517
New Englandp. 518
Introductionp. 518
Non-rhoticityp. 520
The open front vowel areap. 522
The open back vowel areap. 524
The New England 'short o'p. 525
Price and Mouthp. 526
The southp. 527
Introductionp. 527
The vowel systemp. 530
The lax vowelsp. 533
Price and Mouthp. 537
Other vowelsp. 539
Vowel plus nasalp. 540
Is southern speech non-rhotic?p. 542
Vowel plus /r/p. 545
Vowel plus /l/p. 550
Weak vowelsp. 551
Consonantsp. 552
Black Englishp. 553
Introductionp. 553
Phonetic characteristicsp. 556
The West Indiesp. 560
General characteristics of Caribbean Englishp. 560
Introductionp. 560
Creolep. 562
TH Stoppingp. 565
Cluster reductionp. 566
Other consonantsp. 567
Vowels and /r/p. 570
Prosodic featuresp. 572
Individual territoriesp. 574
Jamaicap. 574
Trinidadp. 577
Guyanap. 581
Barbadosp. 583
The Leewardsp. 585
Bahamasp. 588
The southern hemispherep. 592
Australiap. 592
Introductionp. 592
The vowel systemp. 595
Closing diphthongsp. 597
Monophthongsp. 598
Centring diphthongsp. 599
Weak vowelsp. 601
Consonantsp. 603
Prosodic characteristicsp. 604
New Zealandp. 605
Introductionp. 605
Central Kitp. 606
The remainder of the vowel systemp. 607
The lateral and its influencep. 609
Other consonantsp. 610
South Africap. 610
Introductionp. 610
The Kit Splitp. 612
Other front vowelsp. 613
Diphthongsp. 614
Long monophthongsp. 615
The liquidsp. 616
Other consonantsp. 617
Regional and social variabilityp. 620
The imperial legacyp. 623
Indiap. 624
Introductionp. 624
Anglo-Indianp. 624
Vowelsp. 626
Consonantsp. 627
Prosodic characteristicsp. 630
Interference and intelligibilityp. 631
Africap. 632
Introductionp. 632
Liberiap. 634
Vowelsp. 636
Consonantsp. 639
Prosodic characteristicsp. 643
Interference and intelligibilityp. 644
The Far Eastp. 645
Singaporep. 645
The Philippinesp. 647
Hawaiip. 649
Sources and further readingp. 652
Referencesp. 654
Indexp. 669
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521285414
ISBN-10: 0521285410
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 228
Published: 7th June 1982
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 21.69 x 14.02  x 1.58
Weight (kg): 0.33