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A Parameter-Setting Model of L2 Acquisition : Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics - S. Flynn

A Parameter-Setting Model of L2 Acquisition

Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics

By: S. Flynn

Paperback Published: 1988
ISBN: 9789027723758
Number Of Pages: 260

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Recent developments in linguistic theory have led to an important reorientation of research in related fields of linguistic inquiry as well as in linguistics itself. The developments I have in mind, viewed from the point of view of government-binding theory, have to do with the character- ization of Universal Grammar (UG) as a set of subtheories, each with its set of central principles (perhaps just one principle central to each subtheory) and parameters (perhaps just one for each principle) according to which a principle can vary between an unmarked ('-') and a marked ('+') para- metric value (Chomsky, 1985; 1986). For example, let us assume that there is an X-bar theory in explanation of those features of phrase structure irreducible to other subtheo- ries of UG. Within X-bar theory variation among languages is then allowed only with respect to the position the head of a phrase occupies in rela t ion to its complemen ts such that the phrases of a language will be either right- or left-headed. Thus languages will vary between being right-headed in this respect (as in Japanese phrase structure) and being left-headed (as in English phrase structure). Everything else about the phrase structure of particular languages will be fixed within X-bar theory itself or else it will fallout from other subtheories of UG: Case theory; 0-theory, etc. (Chomsky, 1985:161-62; Chomsky, 1986:2-4; and references cited there). Hatters are the same in other modules of grammar.

1. Introduction.- 1.1 L2 Acquisition: The Problems and Traditional Answers.- 1.2 Universal Grammar.- 1.2.1 Universal Grammar and L2 Acquisition.- 1.3 Basis for an Alternative Theory of L2 Acquisition.- 1.4 Outline of the Book.- 2. Traditional Theories of L2 Acquisition.- 2.1 Theory of Contrastive Analysis (CA).- 2.1.1 Supporting Experimental Data.- 2.1.2 Nonsupporting Experimental Data.- 2.1.3 Theoretical Problems.- 2.2 Theory of Creative Construction (CC).- 2.2.1 Supporting Experimental Data.- 2.2.2 Nonsupporting Experimental Data.- 2.2.3 Theoretical Problems.- 2.3 Bases for an Explanatory Theory of L2 Acquisition.- 2.4 Preliminary Conclusions.- Notes to Chapter Two.- 3. Universal Grammar.- 3.1 Universal Grammar.- 3.2 Universal Grammar as a Theory of Grammar.- 3.2.1 Brief Overview: Government-Binding Theory of Universal Grammar.- 3.3 Linguistic Focus of Book.- 3.3.1 Head-Initial/Head-Final Parameter.- 3.3.2 Anaphora.- 3.3.3 Importance of anaphora to UG.- 3.3.4 Anaphora in GB.- 3.3.5 Binding Theory.- 3.3.6 C-command.- 3.3.7 Governing Category.- 3.3.8 Empty Categories.- 3.3.9 Binding Theory and Control Theory.- 3.3.10 Binding Theory and Control Theory Summary: Relevant Issues for Proposed Adult L2 Acquisition Study.- 3.4 Relevant Linguistic Concepts for Experimental Tests of Pronoun and Null Anaphors.- 3.4.1 Structural Configuration.- 3.4.2 Free and Bound Anaphora.- 3.4.3 Anaphora as Bipartite.- 3.4.4 Intrasentential Anaphora.- 3.5 Universal Grammar as a Theory of Language Acquisition.- 3.5.1 Evidence of UG in L1 Acquisition.- 3.5.2 Natural Speech: English.- 3.5.3 Anaphora.- 3.5.4 Null and Pronoun Anaphora.- 3.5.5 Differences between Production and Interpretation.- 3.5.6 Supporting Cross-Linguistic Evidence.- 3.6 Overview: UG and L2 Acquisition.- 3.7 Summary.- Notes to Chapter Three.- 4. A Typological Comparison Of Japanese and Spanish.- 4.1 Word Order, Configurationality, and Head-Initial/Head-Final Parameter.- 4.1.1 Japanese Word Order and Configurationality.- 4.1.2 Spanish Word Order and Configurationality.- 4.2 Anaphora.- 4.2.1 Similarities in Pronoun and Null Anaphora in Japanese and Spanish.- 4.2.2 Dissimilarities in Pronoun and Null Anaphora in Japanese and Spanish.- 4.3 Adjunct Adverbial Subordinate Clauses.- 4.3.1 Japanese.- 4.3.2 Spanish.- 4.4 Summary of Cross-Linguistic Facts.- Notes to Chapter Four.- 5. Rationale and Design.- 5.1 General Hypotheses to be Tested.- 5.1.1 CC: Similarities and Differences.- 5.1.2 CA: Similarities and Differences.- 5.2 Overview: Experimental Design.- 5.2.1 Production Tests: General Description.- 5.2.2 Comprehension Test: General Description.- 5.2.3 Experimental Controls.- 5.3 Experimental Design and Hypotheses.- 5.3.1 Test 1 (Production): Pronoun or Null Anaphors in Adverbial Subordinate "When" Clauses.- 5.3.2 Test 2 (Production): Variation in Head-Direction Alone.- 5.3.3 Test 3 (Production): Separation of Anaphora Direction and Head-Direction.- 5.3.4 Test 4 (Comprehension): Pronoun or Null Anaphors in Adverbial Subordinate "When" Clauses, +- Pragmatic Lead (PL).- 5.4 Basic Controls on Experimental Design.- Notes to Chapter Five.- 6 Methodology.- 6.1 Subjects (Ss).- 6.2 General Procedures.- 6.2.1 First Session: ESL Testing.- 6.2.2 Second Session: Experimental Testing.- 6.3 Materials.- 6.4 ESL Proficiency Test: Standardized Levels.- 6.5 Specific Experimental Task Procedures.- 6.5.1 Elicited Imitation Task Procedures.- 6.5.2 Comprehension Task Procedures.- 6.6 Procedures for Data Transcription.- 6.6.1 Production Test Transcription.- 6.6.2 Comprehension Test Transcription.- 6.7 Procedures for Scoring of the Data.- 6.7.1 Production Test Scoring.- 6.7.2 Comprehension Test Scoring.- Notes to Chapter Six.- 7. Results.- 7.1 Results for Experimental Controls.- 7.1.1 ESL Placement Test.- 7.1.2 Covariate: Imitation of Juxtaposed Sentences.- 7.2 Amount Correct: Results for Production Tests.- 7.2.1 Test 1.- 7.2.2 Test 2.- 7.2.3 Test 3.- 7.2.4 Summary of Amount Correct for Tests 1 to 3.- 7.3 Error Analyses: Results for Production Tests 1 to 3.- 7.3.1 Lexical Errors.- 7.3.2 One-Clause Repetitions.- 7.3.3 Conversion to Coordination.- 7.3.4 Anaphora Error.- 7.3.5 Summary of Error Analyses: Production Tests 1 to 3.- 7.4 Amount Correct: Results for Comprehension Test 4.- 7.4.1 Test 4: -PL.- 7.4.2 Test 4: +PL.- 7.5 Coreference Judgements (CRJs).- 7.5.1 Test 4: -PL.- 7.5.2 Test 4: +PL.- 7.5.3 Summary of CRJs.- 7.6 General Summary and Conclusions.- Notes to Chapter Seven.- 8. Some Conclusions.- 8.1 General Summary.- 8.2 Similarities in L2 Acquisition for Spanish and Japanese Speakers.- 8.3 Dissimilarities in L2 Acquisition for Spanish and Japanese Speakers.- 8.4 Implications for an Alternative Theory of L2 Acquisition.- 8.4.1 Developmental Implications.- 8.4.2 Assignment of New Values to the Head-Direction Parameter.- 8.5 Some Differences Between L1 and L2 Acquisition.- 8.6 Possible Alternative Explanations of the Data.- 8.6.1 ESL Background.- 8.6.2 Analysis of Covariance.- 8.6.3 Lexical and Experimental Task Knowledge.- 8.6.4 Length of Residence in the U.S. and Amount of ESL Education.- 8.6.5 Match/Mismatch of Other Typological Factors.- 8.6.6 Astructural Processing Strategies.- 8.6.7 Reflex of Discourse Phenomena.- 8.6.8 Intonation.- 8.7 Importance for a Theory of UG.- 8.8 Implications for Future Research.- Appendices.- Author Index.

ISBN: 9789027723758
ISBN-10: 9027723753
Series: Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 260
Published: 1988
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.24  x 1.45
Weight (kg): 0.37

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