1. Medieval Political Ideas and Medieval Society.
The Historical Context of Early Medieval Political Thought.
Carolingian Christian Kingship and Feudal Society.
The Origins of Papal Authority and the Gelasian Doctrine.
Two Swords Theory.
The Twelfth-century 'Renaissance': Canon Lawyers and their
The Twelfth-century 'Renaissance' and Civil Lawyers.
Civilians and Canonists.
Individual and Collective Liberties.
Sovereignty and Corporations.
Natural Law, Rights and the Lawyers Concern for Individual
Origins of Property Rights.
Medieval Education: Practical Moral Philosophy of Ethics,
Economics and Politics.
The Contribution of Arabic and Jewish Thinking to the
Aristotle in the Universities.
Ethics and Politics in the Liberal Arts Course.
The Purpose of Aristotelian Rhetorical Persuasion.
The Thirteenth 'Aristotelian' Century.
The Later Thirteenth-century Understanding of Rhetoric's Service
to a Prince: Giles of Rome.
Returning to Giles of Rome's Rhetorical De regimine
Rhetoric outside the University and Aristotle within the
Aristotle's Ethics for Medieval University Students.
Lawyers Versus the Arts Faculty Philosophers.
The New Mendicant Orders: Franciscans and Dominicans and
2. St Thomas Aquinas.
Philosophy of Man.
Reality and Metaphysics.
Naming, Natures and Actual Existents.
Natures and Definitions.
Substantial Form and Corporeal Individuation.
Being and Essence.
Cause and Effect.
Grace Added to and Perfecting, Not Destroying, Nature.
Sense Origin of Knowing.
Reason and Will.
The Will's Relation to Justice as Universal Principal and as
Historically Contingent Conclusion.
Eudaomonia/beatitudo: Imoorality and the Completion of
Rationality and the Freedom of the Will.
The Will and the Doctrine of Original Sin.
State and Church: The Consequences of Natural Theology.
Free Will and Responsibility.
Aquinas on Law and Ploitics.
Natural Law and Politics.
Natural Law beyond Cicero.
Natural Human Community.
The Consequences of the Fall.
Individual Rights and the States's Law.
The Contrast with Augustine.
The Mixed Constitution.
Private Property Rights.
3. John of Paris.
The Franciscan Position.
The Dominican Position.
The Origin of Government.
The Thomistic Underpinning of dominium in rebus, Lordship
and Ownership of Things.
The Justification of Private Ownership.
Limitations on Government.
The Origin of the Priesthood.
The Relation of the Church to its Property.
4. Marsilius of Padua.
A Reading Discourse 1.
Some Observations from Discourse 2.
5. William of Ockham.
Ockham's Positions on Church and State.
Ockham's Dualism Concerning Secular and Spiritual Government:
Continuing the Narrative.
Comparisions with Marsilius.
The Exceptional Exercise of Coercive Authority.
Ockham's 'Absolutism'. How did Ockham Come to Hold These
The Late Medieval Fortunes of Corporation Theories in the
Church's 'Concilar Theory.'.
6. The Italien Renaissance and Machiavelli's Political
The Italien City-States Compared with Other European Cities.
The Unconventional AIms of this VChapter.
Communal Discourses and Citizenship.
Community, Civitas, Ranked Citizenship and Local
The Involvement of Citizens in Late Thirteenth-century Communal
The Communal Ideal and the Menace of Factions.
The Evolution of the Florentine Governing Class.
Who Wanted to Play an Active Role in Fifteenth-century
Humanism and Humanist Conceptions of Florentine
Fifteenth-century Florentine Ideology.
Machiavelli's Political Morality.
Founding and Maintaining the 'Stato'.
The Fixity of Man's Nature.
The 'Fit' Between Character and the Times.
The Impetuous Prince Who Must Learn How Not to Have Fixed
Learn to Imitate Foxes and Lions.
Machiavelli's 'Popular' Government: His Views of the