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A Historical Introduction to Philosophy : Texts and Interactive Guides - James Fieser

A Historical Introduction to Philosophy

Texts and Interactive Guides

By: James Fieser (Editor), Norman Lillegard (Editor)

Paperback

Published: 1st January 2002
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Offering a unique pedagogical apparatus, A Historical Introduction to Philosophy: Texts and Interactive Guides provides selections from the most influential primary works in philosophy from the Presocratics through the twentieth century, integrating them with substantial commentary and study questions. It offers extensive treatment of the Hellenistic and Renaissance periods--which are typically given only minimal coverage in other anthologies--and devotes substantial chapters to nineteenth- and twentieth-century philosophy. The selections are organized historically and are presented in short and manageable sections with organizational headings and subheadings; archaic and difficult material has been adapted for clarity. Accompanying commentaries simplify difficult passages, explain technical terminology, and expand upon allusions to unfamiliar literature and arguments. Study questions are interspersed throughout the chapters in "Ask Yourself" boxes and vary with respect to format and level of difficulty. They require students to reconstruct arguments, summarize passages, complete blanks in statements and arguments, evaluate the success or viability of a philosophical point, or draw contemporary parallels and applications. The questions are carefully framed so as to avoid commitment to any particular side in controversies. Instructors can assign those questions that will best suit the aims of their courses and aid their students' comprehension of the primary source material. A Historical Introduction to Philosophy is enhanced by a comprehensive time line, a glossary, and lists of suggested further readings for both primary and secondary sources. This rich and flexible anthology and interactive textbook is ideal for introduction to philosophy and history of philosophy courses.

"By far the best introduction to philosophy I've encountered. It's comprehensive and on-topic, while the reading guides are an excellent means of leading introductory students through the text. First-rate."--Mark Weedman, Minnesota Bible College "[With this book], students not only get a clear concept of various major philosophical systems, but they are also given the opportunity to read what various philosophers had to say. Students are bound to learn immensely from the way the book is structured."--Charles Mercieca, Alabama A&M University "Systematically presents the most popular primary works in philosophy from the Pre-Socratics through the twentieth century. The commentary and study guide questions are very helpful to both students and instructors."--Merigala Gabriel, Georgia Southern University "Each historical period is given thorough treatment. The writing style draws students into dialogue with the material. The periodic study questions are extremely helpful."--S.N. Fratantaro, Providence College "The texts have been carefully chosen. I was particularly pleased by the inclusion of Moses Maimonides, Martin Luther, and John Calvin, who are frequently overlooked. The scholarly remarks by the editors are easily accessible to students."--Lawrence C. Foard, Westfield State College (Emeritus)

Preface: Time Line: 1. EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHY Introduction Homer and Hesiod Principal concerns of the Presocratics Milesians Thales Anaximander Anaximenes Other Ionians Xenophanes Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans Heraclitus The Eleatics Parmenides Zeno Pluralist Alternatives to Parmenides Empedocles Anaxagoras The Atomists: Parmenides as Pluralist The Sophists: Rhetoric and Virtue for a Price Protagoras and Gorgias 2. SOCRATES AND PLATO Introduction Socrates The Euthyphro Meno The Apology Plato Introduction to the Theory of Forms Phaedo The Republic Phaedrus 3. ARISTOTLE Introduction Logical Works Categories Nature and the Soul Physics On the Soul Ethics Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 4. HELLENISTIC PHILOSOPHY Epicureanism Atoms and Free Will Fearing the Gods Fear of Death Pleasure and Pain Prudence and Freedom Stoicism Zeno of Citium: Logic, Physics, and Ethics Epictetus Cynicism Antisthenes and Diogenes Skepticism Academics and Pyrrhonians The Goal and Criterion of Skepticism The Ten Modes of Skepticism 5. MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY Augustine Book 1. Good and Evil Book 2. Book 3. The Confessions: Augustine on Time Anselm Proslogion 1 Averroes (from The Decisive Treatise Determining the Nature of the Connection Between Religion and Philosophy) Chapter 2: Philosophy and Religion Belong Together Chapter 3: The Elite and Ordinary Believers Moses Maimonides (from The Guide for the Perplexed) God and Biblical Language Thomas Aquinas (from Summa Theologica) The Existence of God Natural Law 6. RENAISSANCE AND EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHY Humanism Pico's Oration More's Utopia The Reformation Luther's Appeal Calvin's Institutes Fideism and Skepticism Montaigne's Apology (from "Apology for Raymond Sebond") Bayle's Dictionary (from "Psyrrho" in Historical and Critical Dictionary) Pascal's Wager (from Thoughts) Astronomy The Earth-Centered System of the Universe Copernicus ("Dedication" to On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) Galileo (from "letter to Giacomo Muti," and Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World) Newton (from "Preface" to Principia Mathematica) Implications of Modern Astronomy Scientific Method Bacon and Induction Descartes's Method Newton's Method of Investigation (from Principia Mathematica and Optics) Mathematics and Scientific Method 7. RATIONALISM René Descartes Meditation 1: Concerning Those Things That Can Be Called Into Doubt Meditation 2: Concerning the Nature of the Human Mind: That the Mind Is More Known Than the Body Meditation 3: Of God: That He Exists Meditation 6: Of the Existence of Material Things, and of the Real Distinction between the Soul and Body of Man Supplementary Selections Benedict Spinoza (from The Ethics) God Does Not Willfully Direct the Course of Nature Nicholas Malebranche (from The Search after Truth) Chapter 1, Section 1: What Is Meant by Ideas; That They Truly Exist, and That They Are Necessary to Perceive All Material Objects Chapter 6: That We See All Things In God Occasionalism Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Monads Human Perception Good Body and Soul The Human Spirit Against Atoms and a Vacuum Anne Conway All Creatures Are Changeable Against Descartes, Hobbes, and Spinoza 8. BRITISH EMPIRICISM John Locke (from Essay Concerning Human Understanding) 1:2: No Speculative Innate Principles in the Mind 2:1: Of Ideas in General and Their Origin 2:2: Of Simple Ideas 2:3: Of Simple Ideas of Sense 2:5: Of Simple Ideas of Diverse Senses 2:6: Of Simple Ideas of Reflection 2:7: Of Simple Ideas of Both Sensation and Reflection 2:8: Some Farther Considerations Concerning Our Simple Ideas 2:12: Of Complex Ideas 4:3: Of the Extent of Human Knowledge 4:9: Of Our Threefold Knowledge of Existence 4.11: Of Our Knowledge of the Existence of Other Things George Berkeley Dialogue One Dialogue Two Dialogue Three David Hume (from Enquiries and Treatise of Human Nature Section 2: Of the Origin of Ideas Section 3: Of the Association of Ideas Section 7: Of the Idea of Necessary Connection Section 10: Of Miracles Section 12: Of The Academical or Skeptical Philosophy Personal Identity Moral Theory 9. LATE MODERN AND NINETEENTH-CENTURY PHILOSOPHY Thomas Reid (from Inquiry into the Human Mind) Introduction Chapter II. Of Smelling Immanuel Kant (from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics and Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals) Introduction Preamble on the Peculiarities of All Metaphysical Knowledge How Is Pure Mathematics Possible? How Is the Science of Nature Possible? How Is Metaphysics in General Possible? Kant's Ethical Theory Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (from Preface to Phenomenology of Mind) Introduction Philosophy and History The Unity of Subject and Object History as Rational Soren Kierkegaard (from Either/Or vol. I and II) Introduction: Kierkegaard's "Existentialism" The Life of Enjoyment The Ethical Life Mary Wollstonecraft (from Vindication of the Rights of Women) The Rights of Women; True Virtue and True Social Flourishing Education, Virtue, and the Need for a Revolution in Manners John Stuart Mill (from Utilitarianism) 1: General Remarks 2: What Utilitarianism Is Friedrich Nietzsche (from The Birth of Tragedy, The Genealogy of Morals, The Joyful Science, and Thus Spake Zarathustra) Art, Morality, and Religion The Critique of Morality The Death of God 10. TWENTIETH-CENTURY AND CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY Bertrand Russell Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by Description Ludwig Wittgenstein Introduction Language and Use Willard Van Orman Quine The Nature of Modern Empiricism Background for Analyticity Definition Interchangeability The Verification Theory and Reductionism Empiricism without the Dogmas Jean-Paul Sartre Freedom in a Godless World G.E.M. Anscombe Modern Moral Philosophy Glossary: Index:

ISBN: 9780195139846
ISBN-10: 0195139844
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 736
Published: 1st January 2002
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.0 x 16.5  x 2.8
Weight (kg): 1.09