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A Guided Tour of Relational Databases and Beyond - Mark Levene

A Guided Tour of Relational Databases and Beyond

Paperback Published: 28th May 1999
ISBN: 9781852330088
Number Of Pages: 625

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Database theory is now in a mature state, and this book addresses important extensions of the relational database model such as deductive, temporal and object-oriented databases. It provides an overview of database modelling with the Entity-Relationship (ER) model and the relational model providing the pivot on which the material revolves. The main body of the book focuses on the primary achievements of relational database theory, including query languages, integrity constraints, database design, comput able queries and concurrency control. The most important extensions of the relational model are covered in separate chapters. This book will be useful to third year computer science undergraduates and postgraduates studying database theory, and will also be of interest to researchers and database practitioners who would like to know more about the ideas underlying relational dat abase management systems and the problems that confront database researchers.

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. 1
An Introductory Examplep. 3
What is a Database?p. 4
Why do we Need Database Management Systems?p. 4
The Three Levels of Data Abstractionp. 5
What is a Database Management System?p. 7
The Concept of Data Independencep. 8
What is a Data Model?p. 9
The Relational Data Modelp. 10
The Network Data Modelp. 12
The Hierarchical Data Modelp. 16
The Nested Relational Data Modelp. 19
The Deductive Data Modelp. 22
An Object-Oriented Data Modelp. 25
Discussionp. 28
Background Materialp. 28
Basic Concepts of Set Theoryp. 29
Basic Concepts of Ordered Setsp. 33
Basic Concepts of Mathematical Logicp. 35
Basic Concepts of the Theory of Computingp. 40
Finite-Model Theoryp. 52
Exercisesp. 59
The Entity-Relationship Modelp. 61
Graphsp. 63
The Building Blocks of an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD)p. 65
Entitiesp. 66
Relationships and their Functionalityp. 66
Attributes and Domainsp. 71
Keysp. 73
Recursive Relationshipsp. 76
Weak Entity Typesp. 76
The Steps Needed for Constructing an ERDp. 80
Discussionp. 81
Exercisesp. 82
The Relational Data Modelp. 85
The Data Structure of the Relational Modelp. 86
Query and Update Languages for the Relational Modelp. 91
The Relational Algebrap. 91
The Domain Relational Calculusp. 107
Datalogp. 115
An Update Language for the Relational Modelp. 125
The Equivalence of Query Languages for the Relational Modelp. 132
Domain Independencep. 133
The Equivalence of the Algebra, the Calculus and Datalogp. 139
Integrity Constraints in Relational Databasesp. 145
Inference of Integrity Constraintsp. 146
Data Dependenciesp. 149
Functional Dependencies and Keysp. 150
Armstrong Relations for Functional Dependenciesp. 158
The Implication Problem for Functional Dependenciesp. 160
Lossless Join Decompositions and the Chase Procedurep. 160
Minimal Covers for Sets of Functional Dependenciesp. 165
Projection of Functional Dependenciesp. 167
Inclusion Dependenciesp. 169
The Chase Procedure for Inclusion Dependenciesp. 174
Armstrong Databases for Inclusion Dependenciesp. 176
The Implication Problem for Inclusion Dependenciesp. 178
Interaction between Functional and Inclusion Dependenciesp. 179
The Case of No Interaction Between Functional and Inclusion Dependenciesp. 186
Multivalued Dependenciesp. 189
Join Dependenciesp. 200
Domain and Cardinality Constraintsp. 212
The View Update Problemp. 215
Discussionp. 226
Exercisesp. 227
Relational Database Designp. 237
Update Anomalies in Relational Databasesp. 238
Desirable Properties of Database Decompositionsp. 245
The Synthesis Versus Decomposition Approaches to Relational Database Designp. 247
Normal Formsp. 249
Second Normal Form (2NF)p. 250
Third Normal Form (3NF)p. 250
Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)p. 253
Inclusion Dependency Normal Form (IDNF)p. 260
Horizontal Decompositionsp. 264
Algorithms for Converting a Relation Schema into Normal Formp. 266
A 3NF Synthesis Algorithmp. 266
BCNF Decompositionsp. 269
How to Obtain a Decomposition in IDNFp. 274
Converting an ERD into a Relational Database Schema in IDNFp. 278
Discussionp. 282
Exercisesp. 282
Incomplete Information in the Relational Data Modelp. 287
Different Types of Null Valuep. 288
The Open and Closed World Assumptionsp. 292
Introducing Order into the Domainp. 294
Extending the Relational Algebra with Null Valuesp. 299
Extending Integrity Constraints with Null Valuesp. 309
The Or-sets Approachp. 325
The Fuzzy Sets Approachp. 333
The Rough Sets Approachp. 342
The Default Values Approachp. 345
Updating Incomplete Relationsp. 347
Discussionp. 351
Exercisesp. 355
Computable Database Queries and the Expressiveness of the Relational Algebrap. 359
What is a Computable Database Query?p. 359
Formalising Computable Database Queriesp. 360
Encodings and Decodingsp. 362
Definition of Computable Database Queriesp. 364
Subclasses of Computable Database Queriesp. 366
Order-Independent Computable Queriesp. 366
Isomorphism-Independent Computable Queriesp. 366
Encoding-Independent Computable Queriesp. 367
An Equivalence Relation on Computable Queriesp. 369
Computational Query Completenessp. 370
The Expressive Power of the Relational Algebrap. 374
Adding a Looping Mechanism to the Relational Algebrap. 377
Discussionp. 383
Exercisesp. 383
Temporal Relational Databasesp. 385
The Importance of Modelling Timep. 385
A Taxonomy of Time in Databasesp. 388
Historical Relationsp. 391
A Historical Relational Algebrap. 393
Historical Relational Completenessp. 398
TSQL2p. 400
Historical Key Dependenciesp. 403
Schema Evolutionp. 405
Discussionp. 407
Exercisesp. 407
Concurrency Controlp. 409
Manifestations of Concurrency Controlp. 410
Serialisabilityp. 415
Serialisability Theoryp. 417
Lockingp. 423
Two-Phase Locking Policyp. 430
Deadlockp. 432
Deadlock Detectionp. 434
Deadlock Preventionp. 436
Lock Granularity and Lock Managerp. 440
Lock Manager Implementationp. 443
Timestamp Orderingp. 445
Timestamp Ordering Implementationp. 448
Serialisation Graph Testingp. 451
Discussionp. 453
Exercisesp. 454
Deductive Databasesp. 459
Model-theoretic Semantics of Datalogp. 461
Expressive Power of Datalogp. 480
Equivalence Between Datalog Programsp. 483
Datalog Not-Equalp. 493
Updates in Deductive Databasesp. 498
Integrity Constraints in Deductive Databasesp. 502
Discussionp. 509
Exercisesp. 510
Extensions to the Relational Data Model and Recent Directionsp. 515
Nested Relational Databasesp. 516
Object-Oriented Databasesp. 524
Graph-Based Databasesp. 533
Active Databasesp. 542
Hypertext Databasesp. 547
Semistructured Databasesp. 556
Knowledge Discovery and Data Miningp. 560
Other Areasp. 566
What Lies Beyond?p. 568
Exercisesp. 568
Bibliographyp. 577
Indexp. 609
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781852330088
ISBN-10: 1852330082
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 625
Published: 28th May 1999
Publisher: Springer London Ltd
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.36 x 17.25  x 3.76
Weight (kg): 1.1

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