Safe disposal of excreta is of fundamental importance, not only for the health of the community, but also because of the social and environmental benefits it brings. However, for many low-income communities, particularly in developing countries, installation of a sewerage system is not always a feasible option. For such communities, on-site disposal u dealing with excreta where they are deposited u offers a hygienic and affordable solution. This book provides in-depth technical information about the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the major types of on-site sanitation facility, from simple pit latrines to aqua privies and septic tanks, with numerous practical design examples. Recognizing that the introduction of on-site sanitation systems involves considerably more than the application of simple engineering techniques, the authors describe in detail the planning and development processes and the financial and institutional factors that will need to be taken into account.
Particular emphasis is given to the need to involve the community at all stages from the planning to evaluation, to adapt projects and programmes to the local situation, and to provide continuing support to the community after the system is installed. Based on the authors' experiences in a number of developing countries, this book will be of interest to a wide range of readers, from engineers and sanitarians to health personnel, administrators, planners and others concerned with improving sanitation in poor communities.