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A Guide to Reproduction : Social Issues and Human Concerns - Irina Pollard

A Guide to Reproduction

Social Issues and Human Concerns

Hardcover

Published: 29th July 1994
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Reproduction plays a huge part in many people's lives, but often little is understood about the biological processes involved and the larger impact of reproductive choices. This book offers an accessible, comprehensive introduction to this fascinating subject. Irina Pollard takes a unique, interdisciplinary perspective, describing in detail the biology of human reproduction, but also covering in depth the impact of procreational behavior on human social structures, the environment, and health. This compelling and authoritative account is the first to draw together in a single volume these two disparate yet intimately connected strands of the story of human reproduction. The book covers fertility and infertility, sexual behavior and pheromones, sperm creation, maternal physiology during pregnancy, fetal development, the biology of breast feeding, and the impact of parental behavior on the physiology of the newborn, as well as population dynamics, artificial control of fertility, the AIDS epidemic, the effects of nutrition and exercise on reproductive behavior, and the causes of birth defects, including abuse of substances such as nicotine, alcohol, and caffeine. This book is an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate students studying biology, medicine, anthropology, human ecology, population dynamics, and public health. It is also an engrossing and enlightening source of information for a wide range of general readers including prospective parents, pregnant mothers, teenagers, and anyone wishing a concise, up-to-date review of human reproductive biology.

"As the title implies, Pollard's book about reproduction in all its guises places the subject in the context of social, human, and environmental concerns. The text, though thoroughly based on current biologic, genetic, physiologic, and scientific knowledge, is remarkably readable...The section on the history of artificial control of fertility is particularly interesting and provides the longitudinal perspective so frequently neglected. Highly recommended..." Choice "...Many readers will enthusiastically welcome a written guide to the modern minefield of issues that involve reproductive biology...provides a substantial base for future explorations into the field." Armand Lione, Reproductive Toxicology "Much of the Guide would be useful as a reference text for teachers of prenatal growth and development...Various chapters would also be useful for people interested in Darwinian medicine..." Lynnette E. Leidy, American Journal of Human Biology "...thorough, informative and well-written." Religiouws Studies Review "Readers interested in advanced textbook in biology will enjoy this volume. Descriptions of the biology of reproduction, including anatomy, physiology, and medicine are thorough, informative and well-written." Judy E. Stern, Religious Studies Review

Preface and acknowledgementsp. xv
Reproductive biology
Fertility and infertilityp. 3
Health determinantsp. 3
Infertility: the price of excess fecundity?p. 6
Medical techniques for assisted reproductionp. 11
Surrogate parenthoodp. 17
Sex determination and gamete maturationp. 21
Our originsp. 21
Sexual differentiationp. 22
Pseudohermaphroditismp. 29
Gametogenesis and maturationp. 29
Differentiation of sexual behaviourp. 36
Hormonal control of brain differentiationp. 38
Neuroendocrine control of pubertyp. 41
The phases of pubertyp. 42
Gonadal function during pubertyp. 43
The adrenarchep. 45
The neuroendocrine control of puberty: an overviewp. 46
Adolescent sexuality: behavioural aspectsp. 50
Light, soltriol and reproductionp. 51
Control of the menstrual cyclep. 54
Gross anatomyp. 55
Steroid hormonesp. 58
Pathways of steroid biosynthesisp. 60
Mechanism of ovulationp. 65
Mechanism of menstrual bleedingp. 68
Premenstrual syndromep. 69
Historical attitudes to menstruationp. 71
The testis and control of spermatogenesisp. 74
Gross anatomyp. 74
The spermatogenic cyclep. 76
Sertoli cells and the Sertoli cell barrierp. 78
Leydig cells and the interstitial tissuep. 81
Testosterone biosynthesis, transport and metabolismp. 81
Spermatogenesisp. 83
Temperature and spermatogenesisp. 87
Maturation of spermatozoap. 88
Immunology of spermatogenesisp. 88
Accessory sex glands: the formation and functions of seminal plasmap. 89
Common modifiers of steroid hormone secretion and fertilityp. 90
Sexual behaviour and pheromonesp. 94
The human malep. 96
The human femalep. 97
Mate choice: conscious or unconscious?p. 98
Types of communicationp. 99
Pheromones and mammalian reproductionp. 99
Pheromones in the rodentp. 102
Possible origins of a personal pheromone: the involvement of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)p. 104
Overviewp. 109
Sociobiology and reproductive successp. 113
Strategies of reproductionp. 114
Evidence of strategies favouring sperm competitionp. 116
The biological basis of female choicep. 122
The biological basis of parentingp. 122
The biological basis of altruism and aggressionp. 124
Fertilization and the initiation of developmentp. 126
Preconceptual carep. 126
Sperm migrationp. 128
Ovum 'pick-up' and survivalp. 130
Sperm capacitation and the acrosome reactionp. 132
Fusion and ovum activationp. 133
Early embryogenesisp. 135
Maternal recognition of pregnancyp. 140
Genomic imprintingp. 142
Maternal physiology during gestation and fetal developmentp. 146
The placenta as a maternal-fetal interfacep. 146
The placenta as an endocrine organp. 156
Nutrient utilization during gestationp. 159
Parturition and lactation: hormonal controlp. 165
Parturitionp. 165
Uterine contractions and cervical ripeningp. 166
Hormonal effects on the myometrium and the cervixp. 168
Overviewp. 172
Lactationp. 174
Storage of milk within the mammary glandp. 174
Lactogenesisp. 177
The milk-ejection reflexp. 179
Lactation and nutritionp. 181
Parental behaviour and the physiology of the neonatep. 185
The period of gestationp. 185
The physical adaptation of the newborn to extrauterine lifep. 187
The significance of low birthweight and associated risk factorsp. 193
Sudden infant death syndrome, maternal drug abuse and IUGRp. 195
The privilege of reproduction: individual and collective responsibilityp. 197
Adaptation to motherhoodp. 198
Decline in male reproduction and the menopausep. 205
Neuroendocrine control of senescence: animal experimentsp. 206
Reproductive senescence in menp. 208
Reproductive senescence in womenp. 210
Postmenopausal phenomenap. 215
Sex steroid hormone replacement therapyp. 219
Reproduction and social issues
Population dynamics, stress and the general theory of adaptationp. 225
Demography and stress: adaptation and stressp. 225
The link between population density and reproductionp. 228
Common modifiers of the strees responsep. 234
Demography and stress: hormonal factorsp. 237
Biochemical aspects of the general adaptation syndromep. 237
Stress and aggression: a view from sociobiologyp. 239
The energetics of fertility: ethical considerationsp. 241
Where does the limit lie?p. 244
How to cope with our individual limitp. 246
Extinctions and the conservation of endangered speciesp. 249
'Survival of the fittest'p. 249
Endangered animals and the phenomenon of species extinctionp. 250
The value of genetic diversityp. 253
Conservationp. 255
The present situationp. 261
Conservation by managemen tp. 262
Tactics of conservationp. 266
Artificial control of fertilityp. 274
Historical perspectivep. 274
New approaches to fertility regulationp. 279
The prevention of the formation or release of gametesp. 280
The prevention of fertilizationp. 292
The prevention of implantation or development of the early embryop. 298
Overviewp. 305
Hormonal contributions to errors of sexual differentiationp. 307
Exposure to synthetic hormonally active agentsp. 308
Exposure to naturally occurring biologically active compoundsp. 314
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic: a global emergencyp. 320
Historical backgroundp. 320
HIV and the immune system: pathogenic properties and evolutionary considerationsp. 324
Body fluids and infectionp. 326
Antiviral drugs and chemotherapyp. 328
The search for a vaccinep. 330
HIV infection during pregnancyp. 331
Strategies for the prevention and control of AIDSp. 333
Adolescent sexualityp. 335
The effect of nutrition and exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axisp. 338
Nutrition and the menstrual cyclep. 338
Food restriction in the female ratp. 339
Food restriction in the humanp. 341
Eating disordersp. 342
The relationship between hyperactivity and food supplyp. 344
Women and exercise: modern trendsp. 346
Men and exercisep. 347
Pregnancy and exercisep. 349
Principles of teratology and an update on nicotine, ethanol and caffeine abusep. 353
Developmental toxicologyp. 353
Teratogenesisp. 354
The critical phase of intrauterine developmentp. 357
Teratogenicity: ethical and legal considerationsp. 359
The biochemistry and physiology of drug abusep. 361
Nicotinep. 361
Ethanolp. 367
Caffeinep. 370
Overviewp. 374
Ethical aspects of human reproductive biologyp. 376
Social impact of the reproductive revolutionp. 376
History of the bioethics movementp. 379
Bioethics committees in practicep. 381
Ethical principles of health carep. 385
Indexp. 389
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521418621
ISBN-10: 0521418623
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 428
Published: 29th July 1994
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.24  x 2.69
Weight (kg): 0.79