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A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems - David Powell

A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems

By: David Powell (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 31st January 2001
ISBN: 9780792372950
Number Of Pages: 242

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The design of computer systems to be embedded in critical real-time applications is a complex task. Such systems must not only guarantee to meet hard real-time deadlines imposed by their physical environment, they must guarantee to do so dependably, despite both physical faults (in hardware) and design faults (in hardware or software). A fault-tolerance approach is mandatory for these guarantees to be commensurate with the safety and reliability requirements of many life- and mission-critical applications.
A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time Dependable Systems explains the motivations and the results of a collaborative project(*), whose objective was to significantly decrease the lifecycle costs of such fault-tolerant systems. The end-user companies participating in this project currently deploy fault-tolerant systems in critical railway, space and nuclear-propulsion applications. However, these are proprietary systems whose architectures have been tailored to meet domain-specific requirements. This has led to very costly, inflexible, and often hardware-intensive solutions that, by the time they are developed, validated and certified for use in the field, can already be out-of-date in terms of their underlying hardware and software technology.
The project thus designed a generic fault-tolerant architecture with two dimensions of redundancy and a third multi-level integrity dimension for accommodating software components of different levels of criticality. The architecture is largely based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and follows a software-implemented approach so as to minimise the need for special hardware. Using an associated development and validation environment, system developers may configure and validate instances of the architecture that can be shown to meet the very diverse requirements of railway, space, nuclear-propulsion and other critical real-time applications. This book describes the rationale of the generic architecture, the design and validation of its communication, scheduling and fault-tolerance components, and the tools that make up its design and validation environment. The book concludes with a description of three prototype systems that have been developed following the proposed approach.
(*) Esprit project No. 20716: GUARDS: a Generic Upgradable Architecture for Real-time Dependable Systems.

List of Figuresp. ix
List of Tablesp. xiii
List of Contributorsp. xv
Forewordp. xvii
Introduction and Overviewp. 1
Application Domainsp. 2
Design Rationalep. 4
The Generic Architecturep. 6
Inter-Channel Communication Networkp. 9
Inter-Channel Error Processing and Fault Treatmentp. 11
Output Data Consolidationp. 15
Real-Time Schedulingp. 16
Architecture Development Environmentp. 17
Validationp. 18
Domain-Specific Instances of the Architecturep. 23
Summaryp. 26
Inter-Channel Communication Networkp. 27
Clock Synchronisationp. 27
Interactive Consistencyp. 39
Message Authenticationp. 45
Schedulingp. 51
Backgroundp. 51
Scheduling Executionp. 58
Scheduling Inter-Channel Communicationp. 66
Operating System Requirementsp. 67
Summaryp. 68
Error Processing and Fault Treatmentp. 71
The [alpha]-Count Mechanismp. 73
Diagnosisp. 77
State Restorationp. 80
Output Consolidationp. 87
Consolidation Mechanismsp. 88
Redundancy Management Boardp. 91
Exclusion Logicp. 94
Conclusionp. 97
Multilevel Integrity Mechanismsp. 99
An Integrity Management Modelp. 100
Integrity Mechanismsp. 101
Implementationp. 108
Other Implementationsp. 114
Related Workp. 118
Conclusionp. 119
Architecture Development Environmentp. 121
Development Approachp. 122
Functional Architecture Designp. 124
Infrastructure Architecture Designp. 128
Physical Architecture Designp. 131
Tool Supportp. 133
Formal Verificationp. 139
Model-checkingp. 140
Formal Specification of GUARDS Mechanismsp. 142
Introducing Faults in the Specificationp. 146
Formal Verificationp. 147
Fault Treatment Mechanismp. 150
Multi-level Integrity Mechanismp. 154
Discussionp. 155
Dependability Evaluationp. 157
Focused Modellingp. 157
Abstract Modellingp. 165
Detailed Modellingp. 177
Discussionp. 191
Demonstratorsp. 193
Inter-Channel Network Managerp. 193
Space Demonstratorp. 198
Railway Demonstratorp. 207
Nuclear Propulsion Demonstratorp. 214
Project Consortiump. 229
Abbreviationsp. 231
Referencesp. 235
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792372950
ISBN-10: 0792372956
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 242
Published: 31st January 2001
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.77 x 17.15  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.57