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A Compendium of Geochemistry : From Solar Nebula to the Human Brain - Yuan-Hui Li

A Compendium of Geochemistry

From Solar Nebula to the Human Brain

Hardcover

Published: 22nd October 2000
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An ever-increasing concern over environmental degradation, together with recent technological advances, has spawned an explosion of chemical data for a wide variety of matter found on earth and in the solar system. Yuan-Hui Li's book offers professionals and students alike an indispensable up-to-date guide to geochemistry, bringing together new information on topics ranging from nucleosynthesis to crystal chemistry, from the systematics of chemical variation in the earth's core to the composition of complex organics. The objective is to illustrate the physicochemical principles and various natural processes that can explain observed compositional changes in natural substances. A general understanding of these principles and processes (including those pertaining to cosmology, geology, and biology) is essential, maintains the author, for deciphering and predicting transport pathways and final sinks of anthropogenic pollutants in our environment.

The book focuses on compositional data and related references for such substances as solar photosphere, meteorites, igneous rocks, soils, sedimentary rocks, surficial waters, marine and terrestrial organisms (including humans), and aerosols. It emphasizes the use of original raw data as much as possible, and applies the statistical technique of factor analysis to elucidate any underlying interrelationships among chemical elements and given sample sets. Whenever applicable, simple chemical thermodynamic models are introduced to explain the observed partitioning of elements among different phases.

"Li includes a more diverse range of topics than does any remotely comparable work, and stresses the importance of cosmological, geological, and biological processes in understanding Earth's environment ... A timely addition to the geochemical literature and the best available compilation of data in recent decades."--Choice

Prefacep. xi
Atoms, Nuclei, and Energyp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Periodic Table of the Elements and Electron Configurations of Atomsp. 3
Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Binding Energiesp. 13
Cohesive Energies among the Atoms of Pure Metals and Nonmetalsp. 19
Ionization Energies and Electron Affinities of Gaseous Atoms and Ionsp. 23
Ionic Radii and Ionic Potentialsp. 28
Electric Polarizabilityp. 35
ElectrOnegativityp. 39
Crystal Lattice Energiesp. 44
Hydrolysis of Canons and Dissociation of Oxyacidsp. 48
Solubility Products and Affinity of Aqueous Cations to Oxidesp. 52
Concluding Remarksp. 53
The Solar Nebula and Nucleosynthesisp. 55
Introductionp. 55
Elemental and Isotopic Compositions of the Solar Nebulap. 55
Cosmological Nucleosynthesisp. 63
Stellar Nucleosynthesisp. 68
Concluding Remarksp. 82
Structure and Chemistry of the Solar Systemp. 83
Introductionp. 83
Motion of Interplanetary Objectsp. 83
Asteroids and Cometsp. 86
Planets, Their Satellites, and Their Ringsp. 99
Condensation of Solid Dusts from the Solar Nebular Gasp. 107
Distribution of Elements in Meteoritesp. 119
Introductionp. 119
Classification of Meteoritesp. 119
Oxygen Isotopes and Possible Genetic Relationships among Subclasses of Meteoritesp. 129
Bulk Compositions of Chondrites and Factor Analysisp. 133
Cosmochemical Classification of Elementsp. 144
Matrices and Chondrules of Chondritesp. 154
Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in Chondritesp. 167
Igneous Differentiation in Achondrites and Iron Meteoritesp. 179
Concluding Remarksp. 188
Igneous Rocks and the Composition of the Earthp. 189
Introductionp. 189
Classification Scheme for Igneous Rocksp. 189
Earth's Structure and Mineral Compositionp. 193
Partial Melting and Fractional Crystallization Models of Igneous Rocksp. 197
Deduction of the Primitive Upper Mantle Compositionp. 209
Partition of the Elements between Mantle and Corep. 215
Continental and Oceanic Crustsp. 221
Relationship between the Compositions of Mantle and Crustp. 231
Isotopic Heterogeneity of the Mantlep. 234
Case Studies of Elemental Association in Igneous Rocksp. 242
Concluding Remarksp. 249
Weathering and Sedimentary Rocksp. 253
Introductionp. 253
Weathering of Igneous Rocksp. 254
Dissolved Products of Chemical Weatheringp. 260
Major Classes of Sedimentary Rocksp. 264
Relative Abundances of Major Sedimentary Rock Types and Mass Balancep. 268
Shales and Related Materialsp. 273
Trace Elements in SandstOne and LimestOnep. 283
Iron Formationsp. 288
Partition of Elements between River-Suspended Particles and River Water, and the Adsorption Modelp. 296
Concluding Remarksp. 302
Distribution of Elements in the Oceanp. 303
Introductionp. 303
Concentrations of Elements in the Oceansp. 3(13
Chemical Speciation of Elements in the Oceanp. 312
Marine Algae and Planktonp. 317
Zooplankton Fecal Pellets and Sediment Trap Materialp. 325
Marine Sedimentsp. 329
Marine Manganese Nodules and Seamount Manganese Crustsp. 341
Marine Phosphoritep. 347
Hydrothermal Vents of the Mid-Ocean Ridgesp. 348
Concluding Remarksp. 352
Biosphere and Homo Sapiensp. 355
Introductionp. 355
Are all Creatures Created Equal?p. 355
Human Bodyp. 366
Coals, Crude Oils, and Organic-Rich Shalesp. 376
Relative Volatility of Elements and Compositions of Aerosol Particlesp. 387
Effects of Fossil Fuel Burning on the Chemistry of Rain and River Waters: A Case Studyp. 405
Concluding Remarksp. 411
Appendix: Rayleigh Condensation and Evaporation Modelsp. 413
Appendix Table A-1: Ionization
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691009384
ISBN-10: 0691009384
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 440
Published: 22nd October 2000
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.51  x 3.81
Weight (kg): 0.86