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Physical Activity and Type 2 Diabetes : Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Action - John Hawley

Physical Activity and Type 2 Diabetes

Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Action

Hardcover

Published: 19th April 2008
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This title provides students, scientists and health care clinicians with state-of-the-art information on the role of physical activity in alleviating insulin resistance. This book discusses the emergence of an exercise-deficient phenotype and details the effects of exercise training on selected aspects of substrate metabolism. The role of exercise interventions and endurance and resistance training programmes, for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance are also covered. It includes recent developments in molecular and cellular biology that have led to the identification of novel targets and pathways for the treatment of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes.

About the Author

John Hawley is currently Director of the Exercise Metabolism Research Group and Professor of Exercise Metabolism in the School of Medical Sciences at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. He has published over 140 peer-reviewed scientific papers, written over 80 articles for technical journals and has authored numerous book chapters for sports medicine and exercise biochemistry texts. Juleen Zierath is professor of physiology and head of section of integrative physiology at the department of surgical science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Zierath is also an adjunct professor of biochemistry at Boston University School of Medicine.

Aetiology of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes: Prevalence and Consequences of the "Diabesity" Epidemic
The Increasing Burden of Type 2 Diabetes: Magnitude, Causes, and Implications of the Epidemic
Trends in Prevalence and Incidence
Risk Factors for Diabetes and Causes of the Epidemic
Determinants of Recent Trends in the Epidemic
Anticipated Consequences of Diabetes and the Outlook for Prevention
Concluding Remarks
Waging War on Type 2 Diabetes: Primary Prevention Through Exercise Biology
Scope of the Problem
Rationale for action
Physical Inactivity's Contributing Role in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes
New Ammunitions
Future Battle Plans
Concluding Remarks
Defects in Metabolism and Insulin Resistance
Fatty Acid Uptake and Insulin Resistance
LCFAS and Their Uptake Across the Sarcolemma
Fatty Acid Transporters
Fatty Acid Transport and Transporters in Human Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
Concluding Remarks
Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Signaling
Lipid Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle
The Insulin-Signaling Pathway
Does Lipid Exposure Impair Insulin Action?
Perturbations in Lipid Metabolism, Insulin Signal Transduction, and Insulin Action With Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity
The Exercise Paradox
Effect of Weight Loss on Muscle Lipid Accumulation and Insulin Signaling
Concluding Remarks
Metabolic Inflexibility and Insulin Resistance
Substrate Utilization During Resting Conditions in Lean, Healthy Individuals
Substrate Utilization in Insulin-Resistant Individuals
Potential Cellular Mechanisms for Metabolic Flexibility in Fat Oxidation
Effects of Weight Loss on Metabolic Flexibility in Obesity and T2DM
Effects of Exercise Training on Metabolic Flexibility in Obesity and T2DM
Concluding Remarks
Nutrient Sensor Links Obesity With Diabetes Risk
Nutrient Sensing and Control of Food Intake
Overnutrition, Disruption of Homeostatic Control, and Insulin Resistance
Cellular Nutrient Sensing
Concluding Remarks
Inflammation-Induced Insulin Resistance in Obesity: When Immunity Affects Metabolic Control
Obesity Is a Chronic Low-Grade Inflammatory State
Evolution of Inflammation in Obesity
Lipid Mediators
Protein Kinase Mediators
Transcriptional Mediators
Concluding Remarks
Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Through Exercise Training
Transcription Factors Regulating Exercise Adaptation
Activation of MAP Kinase Signaling
Factor of Activated T Cells (NFAT)
Regulation of GLUT4 Expression
Mitochondria Biogenesis and Increased Lipid Oxidation
Exercise-Mediated Regulation of PPARs
Peroxisome Proliferators Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator (PGC)-1
Concluding Remarks
Exercise and Calorie Restriction Use Different Mechanisms to Improve Insulin Sensitivity
Exercise and Calorie Restriction Effects on Skeletal Muscle Energy Status
Exercise/Contraction-Stimulated Signaling Pathway for Glucose Transport
Exercise Training Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Signaling
Effects of Calorie Restriction Distinct From Weight Loss
Effects of Calorie Restriction on Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle
Combined Effects of Exercise and Calorie Restriction
Concluding Remarks
Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity and Insulin Resistance
An Overview of Mitochondrial Structure and Function
Evidence for a Role for Mitochondria in Insulin Resistance and Diabetes
Evidence That Mitochondria Are Not Responsible for Insulin Resistance
Concluding Remarks
Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Insulin Action in Skeletal Muscle
Exercise and Contraction Signaling in Muscle
Insulin Signaling: A Web
Effect of a Single Bout of Exercise on Insulin Sensitivity
Effects of Exercise Training on Insulin Action
Concluding Remarks
Resistance Exercise Training and the Management of Diabetes
Resistance Training and Insulin Sensitivity
Mechanisms Behind Resistance Training-Induced Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity
Training-Induced Gene Expression
Conclusion and Perspectives
Concluding Remarks
Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Identification of Novel Molecular Targets and Pathways
AMPK: The Master Switch for Type 2 Diabetes?
Discoveries Suggesting AMPK Could Be Important for Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Could Type 2 Diabetes Be a Consequence of Deficiency in AMPK Signaling?
How Can AMPK Activation Help Prevent Type 2 Diabetes?
Can Chemical AMPK Activation Prevent Diabetes?
Feasibility of Using AMPK Activators
Future Directions
Concluding Remarks
Protein Kinase C and Insulin Resistance
The PKC Family of Serine or Threonine Kinases
Roles for PKC in Normal Glucose Homeostasis
PKC and Defective Glucose Disposal
Concluding Remarks
Evidence for the Prescription of Exercise as a Therapy for the Treatment of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
Options for the Treatment of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
Molecular Evidence for the Prescription of Exercise Training
Exercise and Drug Combination Therapy
Exercise-Like Effects of Current Antihyperglycemic Drugs
Prescription of Exercise Training: Practical Considerations
Concluding Remarks
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780736064798
ISBN-10: 0736064796
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 232
Published: 19th April 2008
Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers
Dimensions (cm): 27.9 x 21.6  x 2.0
Weight (kg): 0.84