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Packaging, Policy and the Environment - Geoffrey M. Levy

Packaging, Policy and the Environment

Hardcover

Published: 30th November 1999
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An in-depth appraisal of the key environmental, policy, legislative, and political issues for packaging and packaged products. International experts discuss responses and activities in different parts of the world, exploring the vital role that environmentally responsible packaging must play in all societies.

Contributorsp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Introduction--Packaging, Policy and the Environmentp. 1
Overviewp. 1
The packaging problem or the problem with packaging...?p. 4
The packaging decisionp. 5
Packaging factoids and anecdotesp. 6
The problem with packagingp. 7
Used packaging wastep. 8
European packaging legislationp. 9
The historical contextp. 10
The packaging chainp. 11
Failure to achieve aimsp. 12
Sustainable developmentp. 14
What does it mean?p. 14
What is business doing about it?p. 16
Integrated product policyp. 19
A 'new' approach to environmental improvementp. 20
Integrated product policy and the packaging chainp. 23
Producer responsibilityp. 24
Extended producer responsibilityp. 25
Shared producer responsibilityp. 30
Shared responsibility of all interested partiesp. 31
Producer responsibility and integrated product policyp. 38
Packaging policies - From convergence and incongruity to coalescencep. 39
Structured dialoguep. 40
Policy refinement, reconstruction, coherence and coalescencep. 41
Concluding summaryp. 43
Packaging's Role in Societyp. 47
Early packagingp. 47
Packaging for preservationp. 48
The supermarket revolutionp. 50
Types of packagingp. 53
Primary, secondary and tertiary packagingp. 54
Returnable, non-returnable and recoverable packagingp. 55
Commodity packagingp. 56
Convenience and functional packagingp. 57
Luxury packagingp. 57
The functions of packagingp. 57
Containment and protectionp. 58
Preservationp. 58
Communicationp. 59
Product losses through spoilagep. 61
The costs of packagingp. 63
Packaging reflects a changing lifestylep. 63
Packaging in the Environment--Perceptions and Realitiesp. 66
Introductionp. 66
Taken for grantedp. 67
The principal polluter pays all ... or the polluter pays principle?p. 68
Adapting to changep. 69
The perseverence of myths and the dismissal of factsp. 70
Perceptions are the realityp. 71
Getting comparable and consistent datap. 74
Interpreting the factsp. 76
The life cycle approachp. 76
As simple as possible but no simplerp. 77
Environmental costs and burdensp. 79
Recycling - Superseding the factsp. 81
Realitiesp. 84
The real nature of packagingp. 85
Perceptions are realityp. 86
Returnable or non-returnable packaging?p. 88
Adapting to changep. 89
A business issuep. 91
Accounting for the environmentp. 92
Corporate environmental reportingp. 93
'More from less'p. 95
Legislationp. 96
A necessity not an optionp. 98
Summaryp. 98
Conclusionp. 99
Communicating with Consumers about Packagingp. 102
Introductionp. 102
Consumer awareness of environmental concernsp. 102
Consumer views on packagingp. 103
Why consumers do not trust industryp. 108
Industry communication and actionp. 109
Conclusionsp. 112
The Industry Council for Packaging and the Environment (INCPEN)p. 113
Packaging and Environmental Legislation--The United Statesp. 115
Overviewp. 115
U.S. regulation of solid waste disposalp. 115
The federal role - Environmental Protection Agencyp. 116
Conflicts over interstate shipment of wastep. 116
Trendsp. 117
Federal policy on recyclingp. 117
Federal regulation - Environmental Protection Agencyp. 117
Regulation of food packaging made from recycled materials--Food and Drug Administrationp. 118
State and local regulation of packaging contentp. 119
Packaging bans and other recycling considerationsp. 119
Trendsp. 121
Environmental advertising and labelingp. 121
Federal regulation - Federal Trade Commissionp. 121
State regulation of environmental advertisingp. 122
Trendsp. 122
Control of toxic substances in packagingp. 123
Federal regulation - Impact of NEPA on the FDA regulation of food-contact materialsp. 123
State regulation - restrictions on heavy metal content of packagingp. 124
EPA screening for endocrine modulatorsp. 124
California's Proposition 65p. 125
Trendsp. 126
Conclusionp. 126
Packaging and Environmental Legislation--The European Communityp. 131
Introductionp. 131
European Community environmental policy and regulationp. 131
European Community environmental policyp. 131
The legal framework for European Community environmental actionsp. 132
Packaging and packaging waste in the context of European Community environmental legislationp. 136
European Community environmental legislation on packagingp. 137
Developments toward comprehensive packaging legislationp. 137
The European Community Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging wastep. 138
Other European Community legislation affecting packagingp. 141
The 'Eco-Label'p. 141
The Eco-Audit regulationp. 142
Legislation on materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffsp. 143
Overview of national measuresp. 144
Germanyp. 144
The Netherlandsp. 146
Francep. 148
Conclusionsp. 149
Managing the Environmental Impacts of Packaging Manufacturep. 153
Introductionp. 153
The role of the modern packaging manufacturerp. 154
Materials and processesp. 154
Packaging designp. 155
Packaging material comparisonsp. 157
Selection constraintsp. 157
Material comparisonsp. 157
Review of processesp. 160
Scope of manufacturing operationsp. 161
Steel/tinplatep. 161
Aluminiump. 163
Glassp. 163
Paper and boardp. 164
Plasticsp. 164
Flexible packagingp. 165
Packaging machineryp. 166
Environmental management and organisationp. 166
Integration and structurep. 167
Management systemsp. 167
Accreditation or not?p. 168
Costs and benefitsp. 168
Categorisation of packaging environmental impactsp. 169
Container life cyclep. 169
'Upstream' effectsp. 170
'Downstream' effectsp. 170
Package manufacturing effectsp. 171
Use of resourcesp. 172
Pollutionp. 172
Waste arisingsp. 172
Identification and control of manufacturing impactsp. 173
Environmental auditsp. 173
Basic steps in auditingp. 173
Audit report and follow-upp. 174
Compliance with regulationsp. 174
Environmental risk assessmentp. 175
Communicationp. 175
Employeesp. 175
External communitiesp. 176
Regulatory authoritiesp. 176
The packaging chainp. 176
Summary of conclusionsp. 176
Life Cycle Assessment of Packagingp. 178
Introductionp. 178
The role of LCA in the environmental management toolboxp. 179
Human and environmental safetyp. 180
Regulatory compliancep. 180
Efficient use of resources and management of wastesp. 181
Addressing societal concernsp. 181
Why use Life Cycle Assessment? - The fundamental dilemmap. 181
Current status of Life Cycle Assessmentp. 184
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry - SETACp. 184
International Organisation for Standardisation - ISO 14040 seriesp. 184
The parts of a Life Cycle Assessmentp. 185
Goal definition and scopingp. 185
Life Cycle Inventoryp. 186
Life Cycle Impact Assessmentp. 188
Interpretationp. 189
Using LCA for packagingp. 191
Life Cycle Assessment of packaging in practice - A case studyp. 193
Backgroundp. 193
Key data used in the studyp. 194
Key findingsp. 195
Recommendationsp. 196
Using LCA to optimise packaging and solid waste management systemsp. 197
LCA tools for integrated solid waste managementp. 198
Overall environmental optimisationp. 199
Use of LCA in policy makingp. 199
Conclusionsp. 201
Packaging Recovery and Recycling Policy in Practicep. 205
Introductionp. 205
What is waste?p. 205
The critical factors of recovery and recyclingp. 208
Wastestreamp. 210
Diversion to recoveryp. 212
Operationp. 214
Economic impactp. 217
Integrated waste management - Implementation of an integrated systems approach to waste managementp. 219
The studyp. 219
Methodologyp. 220
Quantitative summaryp. 221
Qualitative summaryp. 227
Environmental considerationsp. 234
The temporal aspect: Program evolutionp. 234
Conclusionsp. 236
The continuous optimisation of waste management and recoveryp. 237
Rethinking European waste policy and the PandPWDp. 240
What the evidence showsp. 240
The current policy situationp. 241
The merits of a holistic approachp. 243
Future EU waste policyp. 244
EU waste policy considerationsp. 245
What is ERRA, the European Recovery and Recycling Association?p. 246
Packaging and Environmental Policies--North Americap. 248
Introductionp. 248
Environmental awarenessp. 249
Packaging and the environmentp. 250
Municipal solid waste and environmental issuesp. 253
Packaging and municipal solid wastep. 255
Implications for packaging suppliers and usersp. 260
Solid waste - Key packaging issuesp. 261
Political roles and issuesp. 261
Terminologyp. 265
Consumers and packagingp. 265
Prioritiesp. 266
Solid waste prioritiesp. 266
Recyclable packagingp. 270
Action and attitudesp. 275
Consumersp. 275
Environmental activistsp. 276
Legislators and public authoritiesp. 277
Industry and tradep. 277
Summary and implicationsp. 278
Legislationp. 278
Corporate policyp. 278
Summaryp. 279
Packaging and Environmental Policies--Europep. 282
Introductionp. 282
Background to the EU Packaging and Packaging Waste Directivep. 283
Legal base of Directivep. 283
Key elements of the EU Directive 94/62/ECp. 286
Scopep. 286
Definitionsp. 286
Who must comply?p. 287
Mandatory requirements and optional elementsp. 287
Mandatory requirementsp. 288
Optional elements of the Directivep. 291
Meeting packaging recovery and recycling targetsp. 295
Defining producer responsibilityp. 296
Packaging taxesp. 298
LCA in EU packaging policyp. 302
Beyond the European Unionp. 304
The new millenniump. 306
Europen - The European Organisation for Packaging and the Environmentp. 306
European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/ECp. 308
Packaging and Environmental Policies--Japanp. 321
Introductionp. 321
The Japanese packaging industry and its special featuresp. 322
Packaging materials shipmentp. 325
Current status of energy saving in packaging materialsp. 329
Packaging and the environmentp. 330
Appearance of new environmentally conscious metal cansp. 331
Towards the creation of a resource-circulation societyp. 334
Present status of packaging waste recyclingp. 336
Packaging and Environmental Policies--Australasiap. 340
Introductionp. 340
Public perceptionp. 341
Early industry responsep. 342
Early regulatory responsep. 342
Early packaging recyclingp. 343
Waste realitiesp. 343
An evolving regulatory frameworkp. 345
An optimum regulatory approachp. 345
The Australian regulatory frameworkp. 348
Regulating for recyclingp. 349
Federal processes - The Anzecc agreementsp. 349
State legislationp. 352
The need for a national approachp. 354
The New Zealand experiencep. 354
A new national frameworkp. 355
Towards an Australian Covenantp. 355
The National Packaging Covenant and National Environment Measure for Used Packaging Materialsp. 359
Regulation impact assessmentp. 361
Recycling in perspectivep. 363
Other issues for the packaging sectorp. 365
Conclusionsp. 367
Packaging and Environmental Policies--Brazilp. 369
Introductionp. 369
Backgroundp. 370
Key issuesp. 374
The view from the other two-thirdsp. 375
Actions and attitudesp. 377
Recycling - The catadoresp. 377
Recycling - The curbsidep. 379
Recycling - The popularityp. 381
The private sectorp. 382
Cempre - A summaryp. 387
Trends and implicationsp. 388
Conclusionp. 390
Packaging and Environmental Policies--South Africap. 392
Introductionp. 392
Overview of the South African packaging industryp. 393
Convenience packagingp. 394
The environmentp. 395
Current environmental initiativesp. 398
Packaging's contribution to solid wastep. 398
Beverage industry in South Africap. 399
Waste stream in South Africap. 399
Transportationp. 399
Plastics environmental initiativesp. 400
Recyclingp. 400
Packaging materialsp. 401
Glassp. 401
Paper and boardp. 401
Plasticsp. 402
Steelp. 402
Aluminiump. 402
Core of the problem with wastep. 403
Solid wastep. 403
Industry initiativesp. 404
Legislationp. 405
Current legislative initiativesp. 406
The Packaging Council of South Africa (PACSA)p. 407
Indexp. 409
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780834217188
ISBN-10: 083421718X
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 428
Published: 30th November 1999
Dimensions (cm): 23.3 x 15.5  x 2.3
Weight (kg): 0.78