My ideas for this book have been evolving over the last several years as I have been working in the animal modeling area and have seen it change rather dramatically. There have been tremendous advances, both in methodology and in conceptualization, yet the literature is scattered in journals encompassing many disciplines. In particular, there have been only very limited attempts to write about the philosophical, conceptual, and controversial issues in this field; to pull together diverse findings; and to provide some general perspective on its future. As will probably be apparent, I am a clinical psychiatrist who also has a fundamental interest in animal behavior, especially primate social behavior. I entered the field from a clinical research standpoint to devel- op some animal models of depression after being stimulated to do so by Dr. William Bunney, then at the National Institute of Mental Health and now at the University of California-Irvine. The field has grown rapidly since then and there is considerable research activity. Indeed, the re- search activity has grown more rapidly than our conceptualization of what animal models are and are not.
Animal preparations are now available for studying specific aspects of certain types of psychopathology. Thoughtful workers in the animal modeling field no longer talk about comprehensive models but rather about more limited experimental preparations in animals for studying certain specific aspects of human psychopathology.
I. Fundamental Basis and Justification for a New Comparative Psychiatry.- 1. Historical Perspective.- History.- Summary of Key Points.- References.- 2. Philosophical Basis for the Development of Animal Models for Psychiatric Illnesses.- What Are Models?.- General Kinds of Animal Models.- Behavioral Similarity Models.- Theory-Driven Models.- Mechanistic Models.- Empirical Validity Models.- The Homology-Analogy Issue.- Why Have Animal Models?.- Animal Modeling Research in Relationship to Other Approaches in Psychiatric Research.- Limitations of Animal Models.- Evaluation of Animal Models.- Summary of Key Points.- References.- II. Four Illustrative Case Examples.- 3. Animal Models for Affective Disorders.- History.- Clinical Considerations.- Pharmacological Models of Depression.- Separation Models.- Neurobiological Effects of Maternal Separation.- Peer Separation Studies.- Separation Models: Rationale and Role in Modeling Studies.- Uncontrollability Models.- Chronic Stress Models.- Changes in Dominance Hierarchy.- Intracranial Self-Stimulation.- Conditioned Motionlessness.- Behavioral Despair.- Animal Models for Mania.- Amphetamine-Induced Hyperactivity.- Morphine.- Other Drug-Induced Behaviors.- Non-Drug-Induced Behaviors in Relation to Models of Mania.- 6-Hydroxydopamine Models of Mania.- Summary of Key Points.- References.- 4. Animal Models for Anxiety Disorders.- Clinical Context.- Animal Models of Anxiety.- Operant Conditioning Paradigms.- A Model Based on Alteration of Locus Coeruleus Function.- A Model Based on Studies of Aplysia.- Models Based Primarily on Social Manipulations.- Phobias and Other Neuroses.- General Discussion and Conclusions.- Summary of Key Points.- References.- 5. Animal Models for Schizophrenic Disorders.- The Clinical Syndrome.- Clinical Diagnosis.- Criteria for Evaluating Animal Models of Schizophrenia.- Drug-Induced Models.- Amphetamine and Psychostimulant Models.- Phenylethylamine Models.- Hallucinogen Models.- Noradrenergic Reward System Deficit.- Conditioned-Avoidance-Response Model.- Arousal Models.- Summary of Key Points.- References.- 6. Animal Models for Alcoholism.- Genetic Studies.- Techniques Used to Induce Animals to Self-Administer Alcohol.- Electrical Stimulation and Intracerebral Injections.- Schedule-Induced Polydipsia.- Intravenous Self-Administration.- Intragastric Self-Administration.- Restriction of All Liquid to Ethanol Solutions.- Forced Administration followed by Free Choice.- Experimental Stressors and Alcohol Intake in Animals.- Effects of Stressors in Intoxicated Subjects.- Ethanol Effects in Stressed Subjects.- Effect of Stress on the Intake of Alcohol.- Drugs and Ethanol Intake.- Other Variables Influencing Ethanol Intake in Animals.- Alcohol Addiction in Monkeys and Young Chimpanzees.- Summary of Key Points.- References.- III. Perspectives on the Animal Modeling Field.- 7. Future Tasks.- The Animal Rights Movement.- Conceptual Tasks within the Field.- Development of a Basic Science of Animal Modeling.- Mainstreaming within Psychiatry.- Recognition of the Interactive and Multivariate Nature of Psychopathology.- Recognition of the Limitations of Animal Modeling Research.- 8. Conclusions.