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Green Communications : Principles, Concepts and Practice - Konstantinos Samdanis

Green Communications

Principles, Concepts and Practice

By: Konstantinos Samdanis (Editor), Peter Rost (Editor), Andreas Maeder (Editor), Michela Meo (Editor), Christos Verikoukis (Editor)

Hardcover

Available: 11th September 2015
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This book provides a comprehensive view of green communications considering all areas of ICT including wireless and wired networks.  It analyses particular concepts and practices, addressing holistic approaches in future networks considering a system perspective.  It makes full use of tables, illustrations, performance graphs, case studies and  examples making it accessible for a wide audience.

List of Contributors xv

Preface xxi

List of Abbreviations xxiii

1 Introduction 1
Konstantinos Samdanis, Peter Rost, Michela Meo, Christos Verikoukis and Andreas Maeder

1.1 Origins of Green Communications 1

1.2 Energy Efficiency in Telecommunication Systems: Then and Now 3

1.3 Telecommunication System Model and Energy Efficiency 6

1.4 Energy Saving Concepts 10

1.5 Quantifying Energy Efficiency in ICT 13

1.6 Conclusions 15

References 16

2 Green Communication Concepts, Energy Metrics and Through out Efficiency for Wireless Systems 19
Timothy O’Farrell and Simon Fletcher

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Broadband Access Evolution 21

2.3 Cell Site Power Consumption Modeling 24

2.4 Power and Energy Metrics 26

2.5 Energy and Throughput Efficiency in LTE Radio Access Networks 29

2.5.1 Reducing Cell Size 31

2.5.2 Reducing Cell Size and BTS Power Consumption 33

2.5.3 BTS Sleep Mode 35

2.5.4 Heterogeneous Networks 36

2.6 Conclusions 38

References 41

3 Energy-Efficiency Metrics and Performance Trade-Offs of GREEN Wireless Networks 43
Marco Di Renzo

3.1 Introduction 43

3.1.1 Ubiquitous Mobility and Connectivity: The Societal Change 43

3.1.2 Mobile Data Traffic: The Forecast 43

3.1.3 Mobile Data Traffic: The In-Home Scenario 44

3.1.4 Next-Generation Cellular Networks: The Compelling Need to be
“Green” 44

3.1.5 Addressing the Energy Efficiency Challenge: Green Heterogeneous
Networks 45

3.1.6 The Emerging Paradigm Shift: From the SE to the SE Versus EE
Trade-Off 46

3.2 Energy-Efficiency Metrics 47

3.3 Performance Trade-Offs 50

3.3.1 The SE Versus EE Trade-Off 50

3.3.2 The DE Versus EE Trade-Off 51

3.3.3 The BW Versus PW Trade-Off 51

3.3.4 The DL Versus PW Trade-Off 52

3.4 Conclusion 53

Acknowledgments 53

References 53

4 Embodied Energy of Communication Devices 55
Iztok Humar, Xiaohu Ge, Lin Xiang, Minho Jo, Min Chen and Jing Zhang

4.1 Introduction 55

4.1.1 Energy Consumption of ICT in Figures 55

4.1.2 The Approaches to Reduce ICT Energy Consumption 56

4.1.3 The Problem of Past Researches 56

4.2 The Extended Energy Model 57

4.2.1 The Embodied Energy and Its Meaning in ICT Technology 57

4.2.2 Embodied Energy Assessment of an ICT Equipment 59

4.2.3 Maintenance 60

4.2.4 Importance of Lifetime 60

4.2.5 The Operating Energy 61

4.2.6 The Total Energy Consumption Model 61

4.3 Embodied/Operating Energy of a BS in Cellular Network – A Case Study 61

4.3.1 Overview of Past Studies in BSs Energy Modeling 62

4.3.2 The Need to Rethink Previous Models 63

4.3.3 The Embodied Energy of a BS 63

4.3.4 The Operating Energy of a BS 64

4.4 The Cell Number/Coverage Trade-Off 66

4.4.1 The Energy Consumption Model Without Power-Off Strategy 66

4.4.2 The Number/Coverage Trade-Off 66

4.4.3 The Energy Consumption Model with the Power-Off Strategy 67

4.4.4 Simulation Results 67

4.5 Discussion and Future Challenges 69

Acknowledgments 71

References 71

5 Energy-Efficient Base Stations 73
Alberto Conte

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 BS Architecture 74

5.2.1 Generic Cellular Network Architecture 74

5.2.2 Base Station Functions 75

5.2.3 Generic BS Internal Architecture 76

5.2.4 Types of Base Station 79

5.3 Base Station Energy Consumption 81

5.3.1 Analysis of Energy Consumption at Component Level 82

5.3.2 Impact of Load Variations 83

5.3.3 Power Models 86

5.4 Evolutions Towards Green Base Stations 86

5.4.1 Component Level Evolutions 88

5.4.1.1 New Power Amplifiers architectures 89

5.4.1.2 Signal-Aware Power Amplifiers 90

5.4.1.3 Improvements of BBU 90

5.4.2 BS Operation Improvements 91

5.4.2.1 Smart Load Adaptation to Traffic Load Variations 91

5.4.2.2 Activation/Deactivation of RF Resources 91

5.4.2.3 Base Station Sleep Modes 92

5.4.3 BS Architecture Evolutions 92

5.4.3.1 Massive-MIMO Architecture 93

5.4.3.2 Cloud-RAN Architecture 94

References 94

6 Energy-Efficient Mobile Network Design and Planning 97
Yinan Qi, Muhammad Ali Imran and Rahim Tafazolli

6.1 Introduction 97

6.2 Deployment: Optimization of Cell Size 98

6.2.1 System Model 98

6.2.1.1 Traffic Model Within a Cell 98

6.2.1.2 Spatial Traffic Variation Model 99

6.2.1.3 Propagation Model and Coverage 100

6.2.1.4 Quality of Service (QoS) 100

6.2.2 Optimization of Cell Parameters 101

6.3 Network Design and Planning for Urban Areas 102

6.3.1 Adaptive On/Off Strategies to Change the Network Layout 103

6.3.2 Adaptive (De)sectorization 103

6.3.3 Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) 110

6.4 Network Design and Planning for Rural Areas 112

6.5 Conclusions and Future Works 114

References 116

7 Green Radio 119
Taewon Hwang, Guowang Miao, Hyunsung Park, Younggap Kwon and Nageen Himayat

7.1 Energy-Efficient Design for Single-User Communications 119

7.1.1 Energy-Efficient Transmission in Flat Fading Channels 120

7.1.2 Energy-Efficient Transmission in Broadband Frequency-Selective Channels 122

7.2 Energy-Efficient Design for Multiuser Communications 123

7.2.1 Multiuser MIMO 123

7.2.2 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) 125

7.2.3 Cognitive Radio 128

7.2.3.1 Cooperative Relay 130

7.3 Summary and Future Work 131

References 132

8 Energy-Efficient Operation and Management for Mobile Networks 135
Zhisheng Niu and Sheng Zhou

8.1 Principles 135

8.1.1 NM Should Be in a Holistic Manner 135

8.1.2 NM Should Involve More Cognition and Collaboration 137

8.1.3 NM Should Be More Adaptive to Traffic Variations 137

8.2 Architectures 139

8.2.1 Paradigm Shift to CHORUS 139

8.2.1.1 Architecture of CHORUS 141

8.2.1.2 Work Flow of CHORUS 141

8.2.1.3 Relationship between Cognition and Collaboration 143

8.2.2 Paradigm Shift to TANGO 144

8.2.2.1 Adjusting the Working Mode of Base Stations 144

8.2.2.2 Adjusting the Cell Size 144

8.2.2.3 Adjusting the Service Mechanism 144

8.3 Implementation Examples 145

8.3.1 CHORUS by Scalable Collaboration 145

8.3.1.1 A Decentralized BS Dynamic Clustering Scheme 145

8.3.1.2 A Ubiquitous Heterogeneous Radio Access Scheme 148

8.3.2 TANGO by Cell Zooming 149

8.3.2.1 Concept and Challenges 150

8.3.2.2 Centralized and Distributed Algorithms 153

8.3.2.3 Performance Evaluation 156

8.3.3 TANGO by Adaptive BS Sleeping 158

8.3.3.1 System Model 159

8.3.3.2 Problem Formulation 161

8.3.3.3 Dynamic Programming Algorithm 164

8.3.3.4 Simulation Study 167

8.4 Derivation of Area Blocking Probability 174

References 176

9 Green Home and Enterprise Networks 179
#ukasz Budzisz and Adam Wolisz

9.1 Home and Enterprise Networks Today 179

9.1.1 Similarities 179

9.1.2 Differences 182

9.1.3 Perspectives 183

9.2 Home and Enterprise Networks in the Context of Green Wireless Networking 185

9.2.1 Metrics for Green Communication 185

9.2.2 Green Potential 186

9.3 Possible Savings in the Current Home and Enterprise Network Landscape 188

9.3.1 Quick Survey of What Can be Done 188

9.3.2 Challenges and Limitations 190

9.3.3 Survey of On/Off Switching Mechanisms for Enterprise (Dense WLANs) 191

9.4 Possible Savings in Future Home and Enterprise Network 193

9.4.1 Interference Management Techniques 193

9.5 Conclusions and Future Outlook 194

References 195

10 Towards Delay-Tolerant Cognitive Cellular Networks 199
Bi Zhao and Vasilis Friderikos

10.1 Introduction 199

10.1.1 Device-to-Device Communications (D2D) 201

10.1.2 5G Wireless Communications 201

10.2 Scenarios and Applications 202

10.3 Previous Research 202

10.4 System Model and Energy Saving Schemes 203

10.4.1 Storage Cost 204

10.4.2 Optimal Stopping Problem 205

10.4.3 Optimal Number of Users 205

10.4.4 Wireless Interface Switch 207

10.5 Numerical Investigations 208

10.5.1 Trade-Offs between Delay and Cost 208

10.5.2 Trade-Offs between Transmission and Storage Cost 209

10.5.3 Maximum of SU 212

10.5.4 Battery Lifetime 212

10.6 Conclusions and Future Research 214

References 214

11 Green MTC, M2M, Internet of Things 217
Andres Laya, Luis Alonso, Jesus Alonso-Zarate and Mischa Dohler

11.1 Introduction 217

11.2 Green M2M Solutions for M2M 220

11.2.1 Discontinuous Reception (DRX) 220

11.2.2 Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) and Uplink Power Control (UPC) 222

11.2.3 Group-Based Strategies 223

11.2.4 Low-Mobility-Based Optimizations 224

11.2.5 Cooperative Communications 225

11.2.6 Device-to-Device (D2D) Communications 227

11.3 Green M2M Applications 229

11.3.1 Automotive Applications 229

11.3.2 Smart Metering (Automatic Meter Reading) 230

11.3.3 Smart Grids 230

11.3.4 Smart Cities 232

11.4 Open Research Topics 233

11.5 Conclusions 234

Acknowledgements 234

References 234

12 Energy Saving Standardisation in Mobile and Wireless Communication Systems 237
G. Punz, D. C. Mur and K. Samdanis

12.1 Introduction 237

12.2 Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) 238

12.3 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) 239

12.3.1 Service and System Aspects Work Group 5 (SA5 – Network Management) 240

12.3.2 Radio Access Network Working Groups (RAN 1, RAN 2, RAN 3) 243

12.3.3 Architecture Working Group 2 (SA2) 244

12.3.4 User Equipment: Core Network Signalling Working Group (CT1) 246

12.3.5 GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network Working Group (GERAN) 246

12.4 GSM Association (GSMA) 247

12.5 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) 247

12.6 Alliance for Telecommunication Industry Solutions (ATIS) 248

12.7 IEEE 802.11/Wi-Fi 249

12.7.1 Mechanisms to Extend the Station’s Battery Life 249

12.7.1.1 Legacy Power Save Mode (PSM) 250

12.7.1.2 Unscheduled Automatic Power Save Delivery (U-APSD) 250

12.7.1.3 802.11v Extensions 251

12.7.2 Reducing the Power Consumption of APs 251

12.7.2.1 Wi-Fi Direct: Enabling Battery-Enabled Devices to Act as APs 252

12.7.2.2 Energy Efficient Enterprise Wi-Fi Deployments 252

12.7.3 MTC Energy Saving Enhancements 253

12.8 Conclusions 253

References 254

13 Green Routing/Switching and Transport 257
Luca Chiaraviglio, Antonio Cianfrani, Angelo Coiro, Marco Listanti and Marco Polverini

13.1 Energy-Saving Strategies for Backbone Networks 257

13.1.1 Backbone Networks and Energy Consumption 258

13.1.2 Energy-Saving Strategies: Switch Off versus Energy Proportional 259

13.1.3 Energy-Saving Strategies: Deployment Issues 262

13.2 Switch-Off ILP Formulations 263

13.2.1 Flow-Based Routing Formulation 263

13.2.2 Destination-Based Routing Formulation 264

13.2.3 Comparison of Flow-Based and Destination-Based Formulations 265

13.3 Switch-Off Algorithms 266

13.3.1 Flow-Based Algorithms 266

13.3.1.1 Least Flow Algorithm (LFA), Most Power Algorithm (MPA) and L-Game 266

13.3.1.2 Energy Profile Aware Routing (EPAR) 266

13.3.1.3 Green Distributed Algorithm (GRiDA) 267

13.3.1.4 Distributed and Adaptive Interface Switch Off for Internet Energy (DAISIES) 267

13.3.1.5 Green Traffic Engineering (GreenTE) 267

13.3.1.6 Energy-Aware Traffic Engineering (EAT) 268

13.3.1.7 Greening Backbone Networks with Bundled Links (GBNB) 268

13.3.1.8 Green MPLS Traffic Engineering (GMTE) 268

13.3.2 Destination-Based Algorithms 269

13.3.2.1 Energy Saving IP Routing Strategy (ESIR) 269

13.3.2.2 Energy Saving Based on Algebraic Connectivity (ESACON) 270

13.3.2.3 Ant Colony-Based Self-Adaptive Energy Saving Routing for Energy-Efficient Internet 270

13.4 Table Lookup Bypass 271

13.4.1 General Model and Implementation Aspects of TLB 272

13.4.2 Network-Wide Solution 273

13.5 Conclusion 274

References 274

14 Energy Efficiency in Ethernet 277
Pedro Reviriego, Ken Christensen, Michael Bennett, Bruce Nordman and JuanAntonio Maestro

14.1 Introduction to Ethernet 277

14.2 Energy-Efficient Ethernet (IEEE 802.3az) 279

14.3 Ethernet Energy Consumption Trends and Savings Estimates 282

14.3.1 Number of Links 283

14.3.2 Power per Link 284

14.3.3 Usage Patterns 285

14.3.4 Results 285

14.4 Future Directions of Energy Efficiency in Ethernet 287

14.5 Conclusions 289

References 289

15 Green Optical Networks: Power Savings versus Network Performance 291
P. Monti, C. Cavdar, I. Cerutti, J. Chen, A. Mohammad, L. Velasco, P. Wiatr and L. Wosinska

15.1 Introduction 291

15.2 Device-Specific Energy Characteristics 292

15.3 Energy Saving for Optical Access Networks Based on WDM PONs 294

15.4 Energy Saving for WDM Core Networks 296

15.4.1 Energy Saving versus Blocking Probability in Transparent WDM Core Networks 297

15.4.2 Energy Savings versus Quality of Transmission in WDM Core Network Design 299

15.4.3 Energy Saving versus Resource Utilization in Green and Resilient Core Network Design 302

15.5 Summary 305

References 305

16 Energy-Efficient Networking in Modern Data Centers 309
Dominique Dudkowski and Peer Hasselmeyer

16.1 Introduction 309

16.1.1 Energy-Proportional Computing 310

16.1.2 Boost in Link Bandwidth 310

16.1.3 Impact on Cooling Infrastructure 310

16.1.4 Impact on Power Distribution Infrastructure 311

16.2 Energy Efficiency in Data Center Networks 311

16.2.1 Dynamic Link Rate Adaptation 311

16.2.2 Link and Switch Sleep Modes 312

16.2.3 Network Topology 312

16.2.4 Combination of Approaches 313

16.2.5 Network Performance 313

16.3 A Joint Energy Management Solution 314

16.3.1 Description of Approach 315

16.4 Performance Evaluation 317

16.5 Concluding Remarks 320

References 320

17 SDN-Enabled Energy-Efficient Network Management 323
Michael Jarschel, Tobias Hoßfeld, Franco Davoli, Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi and Alessandro Carrega

17.1 Introduction 323

17.2 Background: Concepts for Network Operation 324

17.2.1 Software Defined Networking 324

17.2.2 Network Functions Virtualization 325

17.3 Energy Efficient Network Management Practices 325

17.3.1 Power Management Primitives 326

17.3.2 Network Primitives 328

17.4 Energy-Efficient Network Management Enablers 331

17.4.1 SDN/NFV-based Energy-Efficient Network Architecture 331

17.4.2 Green Abstraction Layer 332

17.4.3 GAL Main Design 332

17.4.4 GAL Hierarchical Structure 334

17.5 Conclusions 335

References 336

18 Energy-Efficient Protocol Design 339
Giuseppe Anastasi, Simone Brienza, Giuseppe Lo Re and Marco Ortolani

18.1 Introduction 339

18.2 General Approaches to Power Management of Edge Devices 340

18.3 Remotely Controlled Activation and Deactivation 341

18.4 Proxying 343

18.4.1 Application-Specific Proxy 344

18.4.2 Network Connectivity Proxy 347

18.5 Context-Aware Power Management 349

18.6 Power-aware Protocols and Applications 352

18.6.1 Transport Protocols 352

18.6.2 Application-Layer Protocols 355

18.7 Conclusions 356

References 357

19 Information-Centric Networking: The Case for an Energy-Efficient Future Internet Architecture 361
Mayutan Arumaithurai, Kadangode K. Ramakrishnan and Toru Hasegawa

19.1 Introduction 361

19.2 Popular Content-Centric Enhancements 362

19.2.1 Peer-to-Peer 362

19.2.1.1 What is the Energy Saving Potential? 362

19.2.1.2 Why They are not Completely Effective as a Content-Centric Alternative? 363

19.2.2 Content Delivery Network (CDN) 363

19.2.2.1 What is the Energy-Saving Potential? 363

19.2.2.2 Why They are not Completely Effective as a Content-Centric Alternative? 364

19.2.3 Domain Name Systems (DNS) 364

19.2.3.1 What is the Energy-Saving Potential? 364

19.2.3.2 Why They are not Completely Effective as a Content-Centric Alternative? 364

19.3 ICN: Motivation 365

19.4 ICN: Background and Related Work 365

19.4.1 Named Data Networking (NDN) 365

19.4.2 Content-Oriented Publish/Subscribe System (COPSS) 367

19.4.3 Projects Supported by the European Union 367

19.4.4 Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) 368

19.4.5 ICN-Related Research papers 368

19.5 ICN: Energy Efficiency 368

19.5.1 Content-Centric Routing 368

19.5.2 Reduction in the Number of Hops 369

19.5.3 Caching 371

19.5.4 Seamless Support of Network Operations for Energy Efficiency 372

19.5.5 Coexistence with IP and Other Technologies 374

19.6 Summary 374

References 375

20 Energy Efficiency Standards for Wireline Communications 377
Kanstantinos Samdanis, Manuel Paul, Thomas Kessler and Rolf Winter

20.1 Introduction 377

20.2 Energy-Efficient Network Equipment 379

20.2.1 Power Modes/Power Saving States 379

20.2.2 EC Code-of-Conduct (CoC) 380

20.3 Network-Based Energy Conservation 381

20.3.1 Energy-Aware Control Planes 382

20.3.2 Power-Aware Routing and Traffic Engineering 384

20.4 Energy-Aware Network Planning 385

20.5 Energy Saving Management 386

20.5.1 ITU-T Energy Control Framework 387

20.5.2 IETF Energy Management (EMAN) 388

20.5.3 IEEE Power over Ethernet (PoE) 390

20.6 Energy-Efficiency Metrics, Measurements, and Testing 391

20.7 Conclusions 392

References 393

21 Conclusions 395
Yinan Qi, Muhammad Ali Imran and Rahim Tafazolli

21.1 Summary 395

21.1.1 Green Communications in Wireless Networks 395

21.1.2 Green Communication in Wired Networks 397

21.2 Green Communication Effects on Current Networks 398

21.3 Future Developments 399

21.3.1 Future Network Requirements 399

21.3.2 Towards Holistic Energy Efficient Networking 400

References 402

Index 405

ISBN: 9781118759264
ISBN-10: 1118759265
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 430
Available: 11th September 2015
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 244.0 x 170.0  x 3.4
Weight (kg): 0.89
Edition Number: 1