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Games for Actors and Non-actors - Augusto Boal

Games for Actors and Non-actors

By: Augusto Boal, Adrian Jackson (Transcribed by)

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Published: 22nd August 2002
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Games for Actors and Non-Actors is the classic and best selling book by the founder of Theatre of the Oppressed, Augusto Boal. It sets out the principles and practice of Boal's revolutionary Method, showing how theatre can be used to transform and liberate everyone - actors and non-actors alike! This thoroughly updated and substantially revised second edition includes: two new essays by Boal on major recent projects in Brazil Boal's description of his work with the Royal Shakespeare Company a revised introduction and translator's preface a collection of photographs taken during Boal's workshops, commissioned for this edition new reflections on Forum Theatre.

About the Author

Augusto Boal is a theatre director, dramatist, theorist, writer and teacher. He was a Member of Parliament for Rio de Janeiro from 1993-1996. He is the author of Theatre of the Oppressed, Games for Actors and Non-Actors, Rainbow of Desire, Legislative Theatre, and Hamlet and the Baker's Son: My Life in Theatre and Politics. Adrian Jackson is Artistic Director of Cardboard Citizens. He has translated four books by Augusto Boal, collaborated on a number of occasions and taught Theatre of the Oppressed widely in other countries, including Namibia, South Africa, Hong Kong, Mauritius and Finland.

"This is an inspiring and powerful book, a lucid account that will be of substantial use to people already using "Theatre of the Oppressed." It should also act as an excellent introduction for those new to the system." - Artscene "This is a useful handbook for those who want to explore Boal's 'Theatre of the Oppressed' and as such is greatly to be welcomed. Boals' work deserves and demands emulation." - Theatre Research International "You have achieved what Brecht only dreamt of and wrote about: making a useful theatre that is entertaining, fun, and instructive. It is a different kind of theatre - a kind of social therapy.it focuses the mind, relaxes the spirit, and gives people a new handle on their situations." - Richard Schechner

List of figuresp. xxi
Translator's introduction to the first editionp. xxii
Translator's postscript to the second editionp. xxvii
Preface to the second edition: The Royal Shakespeare Company, theatre in prisons and landless peasantsp. 1
Postscript--with pride in our heartsp. 6
Preface to the first edition: the fable of Xua-Xua, the prehuman woman who discovered theatrep. 11
Postscript: actors and non-actorsp. 17
Theatre of the Oppressed in Europep. 18
Introductionp. 18
The Godrano experience: my first Forum Theatre in Europe or the ultimate spect-actor/protagonist!p. 19
Feminism in Godranop. 20
The police againp. 21
The oppressed and the oppressorsp. 23
The Structure of the Actor's Workp. 29
The primacy of emotionp. 29
Muscular exercisesp. 31
Sensory exercisesp. 31
Memory exercisesp. 32
Imagination exercisesp. 32
Emotion exercisesp. 32
Rationalising emotionp. 35
A la recherche du temps perdup. 37
The dialectical structure of the actor's interpretation of a rolep. 40
The willp. 40
The counter-willp. 43
The dominant willp. 45
Quantitative variation and qualitative variationp. 46
The Arsenal of Theatre of the Oppressedp. 48
Introduction: a new system of exercises and games from Theatre of the Oppressedp. 48
Two unitiesp. 49
Five categories of game and exercisep. 49
Feeling What we Touch (Restructuring Muscular Relations)p. 50
General exercisesp. 50
The cross and the circlep. 50
Colombian hypnosisp. 51
Minimum surface contactp. 56
Pushing against each otherp. 58
Joe Egg (aka trust circle)p. 62
The circle of knotsp. 62
The actor as 'subject': the Greek exercisep. 64
The actor as 'object'p. 66
Lifting someone out of a chairp. 67
Equilibrium of the body with an objectp. 67
A balloon as an extension of the bodyp. 68
Racing on chairsp. 68
Rhythm with chairsp. 68
Musical chairsp. 69
Movement with over-premeditationp. 69
Difficultiesp. 69
Divide up the movementp. 70
Dissociate coordinated movementsp. 70
Walksp. 70
Slow motionp. 71
At a right anglep. 72
Crabp. 72
Crossed legs (aka three-legged race)p. 72
Monkeyp. 73
All foursp. 73
Camel walkp. 73
Elephant walkp. 73
Kangaroo walkp. 73
Leaning-against-each-other walkp. 73
Strapped-feet walkp. 74
Wheelbarrowp. 74
As you like itp. 74
Imitating othersp. 74
Massagesp. 74
In a circlep. 75
The movement comes backp. 75
Sea wavesp. 75
The rolling carpetp. 76
Back massagep. 77
The demonp. 77
Integration gamesp. 77
Person to person, Quebec-stylep. 77
The bear of Poitiersp. 78
The chairp. 78
Leapfrogp. 79
The Brueghel gamep. 79
Stick in the mudp. 80
Grandmother's footstepsp. 80
Millipedep. 80
Apple dancep. 81
Sticky paperp. 81
The wooden sword of Parisp. 81
American football (aka British bulldog)p. 82
Three Irish duelsp. 82
Little packetsp. 83
Cat and mousep. 83
Homage to Tex Avery--cat and dog(s)p. 84
The handkerchief game (aka the hat game, aka dog and bone)p. 84
Good dayp. 85
Cadavre exquis (aka consequences)p. 85
The parachutep. 86
Balance with an objectp. 86
Gravityp. 86
Horizontality sequencep. 87
Verticality sequencep. 88
Sequence of rectilinear and circular movementsp. 89
Listening to What We Hearp. 92
Rhythmp. 92
A round of rhythm and movementp. 92
Game of rhythm and movementp. 93
Changing rhythmsp. 93
The machine of rhythmsp. 94
The Peruvian ball gamep. 96
The clapping seriesp. 97
West Side Storyp. 98
The Portuguese rhythmic shoesp. 99
The two broomsp. 100
The four broomsp. 101
Horseshoe rhythmsp. 101
Circular rhythmsp. 101
The big chiefp. 101
The orchestra and the conductorp. 101
Rhythm dialogue in teamsp. 102
Chain rhythm dialoguep. 102
Pretend Brazilian 'Indians'p. 102
Lines of fivep. 104
The president's bodyguardsp. 104
Walk, stop, justifyp. 104
Carnival in Riop. 104
Bolivian mimosasp. 105
How many 'A's in a single 'A'?p. 106
Two by three by Bradfordp. 106
Crossing the roomp. 107
Circle of names of Belo Horizontep. 107
Circle of rhythms of Torontop. 107
Melodyp. 108
Orchestrap. 108
Music and dancep. 108
Sounds and noisesp. 108
Sound and movementp. 108
Ritual soundp. 109
The rhythm of respirationp. 109
Lying on your back completely relaxedp. 110
Leaning against a wallp. 110
Standing up straightp. 110
Breathe in slowlyp. 110
Explosionp. 110
Breathe in slowly while lifting the armsp. 111
The pressure cookerp. 111
Breathe in as quickly as possiblep. 111
Breathe in as slowly as possiblep. 111
Breathe in deeply through the mouthp. 111
Breathe in with clear definition and lots of energyp. 111
Two groupsp. 112
Breathe out, standing in a circlep. 112
One actor pretends to pull the stopper out of another's bodyp. 112
A, E, I, O, Up. 113
All the actors, standing facing the wallp. 113
Two groups of actors, facing each otherp. 113
With their bodies in maximum possible contact with the floorp. 113
Lying on their backs on tablesp. 114
Internal rhythmsp. 114
Rhythmic imagesp. 114
Dynamising Several Sensesp. 114
The blind seriesp. 115
The point of focus, the embrace and the handshakep. 115
Noisesp. 116
The imaginary journeyp. 117
The glass cobrap. 118
One blind line, one sighted linep. 118
The magnet--positive and negativep. 119
Swedish multiple sculpturep. 120
The vampire of Strasbourgp. 120
The blind carp. 121
What is the object?p. 121
The smell of handsp. 122
The figure-of-eight chicanep. 122
Goalkeeperp. 122
Friend and enemyp. 122
Draw your own bodyp. 123
Modelling clayp. 124
Touch the colourp. 124
The blind person and the bombp. 125
Find the handp. 125
The siren's songp. 125
Find a convenient backp. 126
The melodic handp. 126
The sound of the seven doorwaysp. 127
Recognising the `Aaah!'p. 127
The space seriesp. 127
Without leaving a single space in the room emptyp. 127
Instead of simply saying 'Stop', the Joker says a numberp. 128
The Joker says a number and a geometric figurep. 128
The Joker says a number and a part of the bodyp. 128
The Joker calls out a colour and an item of clothingp. 128
The participants run slowlyp. 128
The participants touch each otherp. 129
Seeing What We Look atp. 129
The mirrors sequencep. 129
The plain mirrorp. 130
Subject and image swap rolesp. 130
Subject-image, image-subjectp. 130
Everyone joins handsp. 131
The two lines form a curvep. 132
Symmetrical groupsp. 132
The mirror breaksp. 133
Changing partnersp. 133
The distorting mirrorp. 134
The narcissistic mirrorp. 134
The rhythmic mirrorp. 135
Unificationp. 135
The modelling sequencep. 136
The sculptor touches the modelp. 136
The sculptor doesn't touch the modelp. 137
The sculptors spread out around the roomp. 138
The sculptors fashion a single sculpture togetherp. 138
Sculpture with four or five peoplep. 138
The puppet sequencep. 138
String puppetp. 139
String puppet with rodp. 139
Image gamesp. 139
Complete the imagep. 139
Ball gamesp. 140
Boxing matchp. 141
One person we fear, one person is our protectorp. 141
Furnish the empty spacep. 142
Atmosphere of snowp. 142
Building character relationsp. 143
Characters in movementp. 143
Observationp. 143
Complementary activitiesp. 143
What has changed?p. 144
Tell your own storyp. 144
The antiquated telephone exchangep. 144
Concentrationp. 144
Animalsp. 145
Professionsp. 146
The balancing circlep. 147
The 'Indian' in the city, the city dweller in the forestp. 148
Games of mask and ritualp. 148
Follow the masterp. 148
Follow two masters--who metamorphose into each otherp. 149
Rotation of masksp. 149
Unification of masksp. 149
Collective creation of a maskp. 150
Addition of masksp. 150
Pushing the mask to its extremity and nullifying itp. 150
Following the master in his own maskp. 150
Changing masksp. 151
Mask exchangep. 151
The masks of the actors themselvesp. 152
Substitution of maskp. 153
Separation of mask, ritual and motivationp. 153
Changing a whole set of masks into a different social classp. 154
Making the mask all-encompassingp. 155
Changing actors mid-ritualp. 156
A round of masks in different circumstancesp. 156
Natural and ridiculousp. 156
Several actors on stagep. 156
The game of complementary rolesp. 157
The politicians gamep. 157
Exchange of masksp. 157
Exchange of rolesp. 158
Fainting at Frejusp. 158
The designated leaderp. 158
The clown of Amsterdamp. 159
The animals of Viennap. 159
Looking first at one another and then at the same spotp. 159
Cookiesp. 159
The image of the objectp. 160
The found objectp. 160
The object transformedp. 161
The object created out of simple thingsp. 161
Homage to Magritte--'This bottle is not a bottle'p. 161
The invention of space and the spatial structures of powerp. 162
Space and territoryp. 162
Inventing the space in a roomp. 162
The great game of powerp. 163
Chairs in the empty spacep. 163
Where is my place?p. 163
Six chairsp. 164
Photographing the imagep. 164
Games involving the creation of charactersp. 165
Murder at the Hotel Agatop. 165
Cops and robbersp. 165
The embassy ballp. 166
The child's dream--what I wanted to be when I grew upp. 166
The child's fearp. 167
What grown-ups wanted me to bep. 168
The opposite of myselfp. 168
The two revelations of Saint Teresap. 169
The fighting cocksp. 170
Catchphrasesp. 170
What am I? What do I want?p. 170
The blank characterp. 170
The Memory of the Sensesp. 171
Reconnecting memory, emotion and imaginationp. 171
Memory: remembering yesterdayp. 171
Memory and emotion: remembering a day in the pastp. 172
Memory and emotion and imaginationp. 172
Remembering an actual oppressionp. 173
Rehearsal on the stage of the imaginationp. 173
Extrapolationp. 174
Image Theatrep. 174
Image techniques: models and dynamisationsp. 176
Image of the word: illustrating a subject with your bodyp. 176
Image of the word: illustrating a subject using other people's bodiesp. 181
Image of transitionp. 185
Multiple image of oppressionp. 186
Multiple image of happinessp. 189
Image of the groupp. 191
Ritual gesturep. 193
Ritualp. 198
Rituals and masksp. 201
The image of the hourp. 201
The kinetic imagep. 202
The merry-go-round of imagesp. 202
Images of transition--the technique in actionp. 203
Examples from Europep. 203
New Image Theatre techniques: the cop in the headp. 206
Dissociation--thought, speech, actionp. 207
The analytical image: the multiple mirror of how others see usp. 208
Somatisationp. 211
The circuit of ritualsp. 211
The three wishesp. 212
The polyvalent imagep. 213
The screen imagep. 213
The image of the imagep. 214
Four very simple demonstrations of embryos of Forum Theatre pieces, based on projected imagesp. 215
Rehearsal Exercises for any Kind of Playp. 217
Exercises with or without scriptp. 217
Improvisationp. 217
The dark roomp. 219
One story told by several peoplep. 219
Change the storyp. 219
One line spoken by several actorsp. 220
Games of emotional dynamisationp. 220
Breaking the oppressionp. 220
The oppressor's confessionp. 222
Emotional warm-up exercisesp. 222
Abstract emotionp. 222
Abstract emotion with animalsp. 223
Abstract emotion, following the masterp. 223
Animals or vegetables in emotional situations!p. 223
Ritual in which everyone becomes an animalp. 224
Stimulation of the dormant parts of ourselvesp. 224
Ideological warm-upp. 225
Dedicationp. 225
Reading newspapersp. 225
The evocation of historic eventsp. 226
Lessonsp. 226
Exercises for the preparation of a Forum Theatre model or for the rehearsal of other kinds of theatrep. 226
Play to the deafp. 226
Stop! Think!p. 227
Interrogationp. 227
The reconstruction of the crimep. 228
Analytical rehearsal of motivationp. 228
Analytical rehearsal of emotionp. 229
Analytical rehearsal of stylep. 229
Opposite circumstancesp. 229
Artificial pausep. 230
Self-interrogationp. 230
Opposite thoughtp. 230
Rehearsal of the cuep. 231
Two touchesp. 231
Silence on set--Action!p. 232
Invisible charactersp. 232
Before and afterp. 232
Transference of emotionp. 232
Slow motionp. 233
Sensory focusp. 233
Low volumep. 233
Exaggerationp. 234
Free-style rehearsalp. 234
Reconnaissancep. 234
Caricaturep. 235
Swapping charactersp. 235
Need versus willp. 235
The rhythm of scenesp. 236
Rashomonp. 236
Keep talkingp. 237
The ceremonyp. 237
Secret whispersp. 237
I don't believe youp. 238
Long Beach telegramp. 238
Holy theatrep. 238
Analogyp. 238
The tick-tock sequencep. 238
The Early Forms of Forum Theatrep. 241
Introductionp. 241
The rules of the gamep. 242
Dramaturgyp. 242
Stagingp. 243
The performance gamep. 243
Examples of Forum Theatrep. 245
Agrarian reform seen from a public benchp. 245
The people judge a secret policemanp. 247
Leader at work, slave in the homep. 248
The return to work at the Credit Lyonnaisp. 249
The nuclear power stationp. 249
Forum Theatre: Doubts and Certainties: Incorporating a New Method of Rehearsing and Devising a Forum Theatre Modelp. 253
Twenty fundamental topicsp. 254
Oppression or aggression?p. 254
The style of the modelp. 256
Do the problems have to be urgent or not? Should they be simple or complex?p. 258
Do we have to arrive at a solution or not?p. 259
Does the model of the future action need to be depicted or not?p. 260
Model or anti-model? Error or doubt?p. 260
The conduct of the Jokerp. 260
Theatricality or reflection?p. 262
The stagingp. 263
The function of the warm-upp. 264
The function of the actorp. 265
The repeated scenep. 266
Macrocosm and microcosmp. 266
How to replace a character without transforming it into anotherp. 267
What is a 'good' oppression?p. 268
Who can replace whom?p. 269
How should a 'model' be rehearsed?p. 271
Can a forum change themes?p. 273
Can people remain 'spectators' in a Forum Theatre session?p. 274
When does a session of Theatre of the Oppressed end?p. 275
First Experiences with Invisible Theatrep. 277
Examples of Invisible Theatrep. 277
Sexual harassmentp. 277
Queen Silvia's babyp. 280
Racism I: the Greekp. 282
Racism II: the black womanp. 283
Picnic in the streets of Stockholmp. 285
The audience's childrenp. 287
Artistic Creation and Divine Madness: a Meditation on Art and the Miraculousp. 289
Passion and artp. 293
The mad artist and the artist madmanp. 296
Postscript: the Pedagogy of Fear--Theatre and the Twin Towers: an Essay After 11 September, 2001p. 298
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780415267083
ISBN-10: 0415267080
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 336
Published: 22nd August 2002
Dimensions (cm): 24.6 x 17.4  x 2.0
Weight (kg): 0.86