Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) arises from the experience of severe stressors and trauma. The disorder is characterized by recurrent recall of intrusive memories to the event, nightmares with insomnia, emotional numbing, hyperarousal, which are all long-lasting and relatively resistant to therapy. The focus of this book is on the question of how stress hormones are involved in PTSD. Recent evidence suggests that a dysregulation in stress hormones promotes the precipitation of PTSD and that correction of these hormones may ameliorate the disorder. This book combines state-of-the-art basic research on stress hormones from gene to behaviour with clinical research demonstrating the progress in understanding via imaging techniques, genetics, vulnerable phenotypes and co-morbidity with other disorders and physical illness.
Vulnerable phenotype: molecules and cells -- Stress-induced changes in hippocampal function -- Glucocorticoids, developmental programming and the risk of affective dysfunction -- Amygdala modulation of memory-related processes in the hippocampus: potential relevance to PTSD -- Commentary: neuroendocrine basis -- Vulnerable phenotype: circuits and behavior -- Mice that under- or overexpress glucocorticoid receptors as models for depression or posttraumatic stress disorder -- Adrenal stress hormones, amygdala activation, and memory for emotionally arousing experiences -- Adult neurogenesis and systemic adaptation: animal experiments and clinical perspectives for PTSD -- Commentary: behavior phenotype -- Clinical perspective: conceptualization of PTSD and related disorders -- Transgenerational transmission of cortisol and PTSD risk -- Early care experiences and HPA axis regulation in children: a mechanism for later trauma vulnerability -- Functional neuroanatomy of PTSD: a critical review -- Structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in posttraumatic stress disorder -- Commentary: biological findings in PTSD: too much or too little? -- Clinical perspective: targets for therapy in PTSD -- Models of PTSD and traumatic stress: the importance of research from bedside to bench to bedside -- What is that a neurobiological model of PTSD must explain? -- Post-traumatic stress disorder in somatic disease: lessons from critically ill patients -- Glucocorticoid-induced reduction of traumatic memories: implications for the treatment of PTSD -- Commentary: synthesis and perspectives -- Short communications -- Strain specific fear behaviour and glucocorticoid response to aversive events: modelling PTSD in mice -- Interaction of endogenous cortisol and noradrenaline in the human amygdala -- Corticosteroid hormones, synaptic strength and emotional memories: corticosteroid modulation of memory: a cellular and molecular perspective -- Does trauma cause lasting changes in HPA-axis functioning in healthy individuals? -- Need for alternative ways of phenotyping of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders in biological research -- HPA-axis and immune function in burnout -- Elevated plasma corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder -- Precuneal activity during encoding in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder -- Posttraumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features: neurobiological findings -- Neuroendocrine dysregulations in sexually abused children and adolescents: a systematic review -- Volume of discrete brain structures in complex dissociative disorders: preliminary findings -- Epilogue.
Published: 18th December 2007