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Reproductive Allocation in Plants - Edward Reekie

Reproductive Allocation in Plants

By: Edward Reekie (Editor), Fakhri A. Bazzaz (Editor)


Published: 4th May 2011
Format: PDF
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Much effort has been devoted to developing theories to explain the wide variation we observe in reproductive allocation among environments. Reproductive Allocation in Plants describes why plants differ in the proportion of their resources that they allocate to reproduction and looks into the various theories. This book examines the ecological and evolutionary explanations for variation in plant reproductive allocation from the perspective of the underlying physiological mechanisms controlling reproduction and growth. An international team of leading experts have prepared chapters summarizing the current state of the field and offering their views on the factors determining reproductive allocation in plants. This will be a valuable resource for senior undergraduate students, graduate students and researchers in ecology, plant ecophysiology, and population biology.

* 8 outstanding chapters dedicated to the evolution and ecology of variation in plant reproductive allocation
* Written by an international team of leading experts in the field
* Provides enough background information to make it accessible to senior undergraduate students
* Includes over 60 figures and 29 tables

1. The Resource Economy of Plant Reproduction
P. Staffan Karlsson and Marcos Mendez
I. Introduction
II. Historical Prelude
III. The Principle of Allocation
IV. Reproductive Effort
A. Definitions
V. Problems in Determining Reproductive Allocation
A. The Currency
B. Definition of Reproductive versus Non-reproductive Plant Parts
C. When Should Reproductive Allocation be Measured?
VI. Dynamic Resource Allocation
VII. Empirical Patterns in Reproductive Allocation
A. RA and Life History
B. RA in relation to Succession, Competition and Disturbance
C. RA in Relation to Environmental Stress
D. Genetic Variation in RA
E. What Does the Evidence Say?
VIII. Costs of Reproduction
A. Methodological Issues
B. Quantitative Links Between Reproductive Allocation and Costs
IX. Conclusions

2. Meristem Allocation as a Means of Assessing Reproductive Allocation
Kari Lehtil?? and Annika Sund??s Larsson
I. Abstract
II. Introduction
III. Developmental and Physiological Background of Meristem Allocation
IV. Meristem Structure and Generation of Plant Architecture
V. Axillary Bud Formation and Subsequent Development of the Bud
VI. Genetics and Physiology of the Floral Transition
VII. Meristem Types
VIII. Meristem Models
IX. The Assumptions of the Models
X. The Impact of Meristem Allocation on Reproductive Allocation
XI. Plasticity of Meristem Allocation
XII. Major Genes of Meristem Allocation
XIII. Resource Levels and Meristem Limitation
XIV. The Function of Dormant Buds
XV. Meristem Allocation as a Surrogate in Estimation of Resource Allocation
XVI. Conclusions
3. It Never Rains but then it Pours: The Diverse Effects of Water on Flower Integrity and Function
Candace Galen
I. Abstract
II. Introduction
III. The Functional Ecology of Water in the Life of a Flower
A. Water Use by Flowers
B. The Water Cost of Flowers
C. Water as a regulator of Flower Microclimate
D. Water as a conduit for Environmental Sources of Flower Damage
IV. Water Relations and the Evolution of Floral Traits
A. Floral Traits as Resource Sinks: The Resource Cost Hypothesis
B. Floral Traits and Water in the Microclimate: Parental Environmental Effects
C. Plastic Responses of Floral Traits to Water Availability: Impact on Plant/Pollinator Interactions
V. Conclusions

4. The Allometry of Reproductive Allocation
Gregory Cheplick
I. Introduction
II. Definition and Analysis of RA in Relation to Allometry
III. Allometry Theory and RA
IV. Relation of RA to Relative Fitness
V. Allometry of Modules
VI. Allometry of RA and Plant Life History
VII. Determinants of Allometry
VIII. Conclusions

5. Sex-Specific Physiology and Its Implications for the Cost of Reproduction
Andrea L. Case and Tia-Lynn Ashman
I. Introduction
II. Sexual Polymorphisms
III. Costs of Reproduction
A. Male Costs
B. Female Costs
C. Common Flower Costs
D. Demographic Costs
IV. Avenues for Mitigating the Cost of Reproduction
A. Photosynthetic Reproductive Organs
B. Increased Vegetative Photosynthesis
C. Increased Resource Uptake and Water Use Effeciency
D. Resorption
V. Predictions for Sex-Specific Physiology Based on Differential Reproductive Costs
A. Predictions for Females and Males
B. Predictions for Hermaphrodites in Monomorphic Sexual Systems: Cosexuality. Monoecy and Diphasy
C. Predictions for Hermaphrodites in Dimorphic Sexual Systems: Gynodioecy and Subdioecy
VI. Potential Causes of Sex-Specific Physiology
A. Physiological Differences Reflect Plastic Responses to Contrasting Reproductive Allocation between Sexes
B. Selection Modifies Physiological Traits after the Separation of the Sexes to Meet Differential Reproductive Costs
C. Physiology Changes as a Correlated Response to Selection on Other Traits (e.g. via Pleiotropy or Linkage)
VII. Available Data on Sex-Specific Physiology
VIII. Recommendations for Future Study

6. Time of Flowering, Costs of Reproduction and Reproductive Output in Annuals
Tadaki Hirose, Toshihiko Kinugasa, and Yukinori Shitaka
I. Introduction
II. Modelling of reproductive output
III. Timing of reproduction
A. Effect of nutrient availability
B. Effect of germination dates
C. Effect of change in flowering time
IV. Costs of reproduction
A. Reproductive effort and the relative somatic cost
B. Nitrogen use efficiency
V. Reproductive nitrogen
VI. Conclusion

7. The Shape of the Trade-off Function between Reproduction and Growth
Edward G. Reekie and German Avila-Sakar
I. Introduction
II. Methods of Describing the Trade-off Function
III. The Shape of the Trade-off Function in Plantago
IV. Impact of Reproduction on Resource Uptake
V. Differences in the Resource Requirements of Vegetative versus Reproductive Tissue
VI. Effect of Nitrogen versus Light Limitation
VII. Effect of Growth Pattern
VIII. Conclusion

8. On Size, Fecundity and Fitness in Competing Plants
Lonnie W. Aarssen
I. Introduction
II. Defining the Components of Competitive Ability for Between-Species Plant Competition
III. Predicting Fecundity Under Competition
IV. Relationships Among Plant Traits Affecting Fecundity Under Competition: Alternative Ways to Compete Intensively While Avoiding Competitive Exclusion
V. Preliminary Empirical Tests
VI. Predicting Winner from Rank Orders in Plant Competition: Lessons from Sports Competition
VII. Conclusions

ISBN: 9780080454337
ISBN-10: 008045433X
Format: PDF
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 264
Published: 4th May 2011
Publisher: Elsevier Science