Heads or Tails answers the central question which has arisen post-global financial crisis: what changes should financial institutions undergo in order to be able to provide reliable protection against systemic and extreme risks? This book describes practical solutions for building a robust risk management focusing on extreme risk. The framework is designed to help address the tail risk during different stages of its development. The proposed solutions do not target particular tail risk scenarios but allow mitigating extreme risk events in general, even if the event stems from 'unknown unknowns'. While the context of Dr Ivantsov's writing is financial services, the book contains an important message for specialists from any industries traditionally exposed to the extreme risks (oil/gas, energy, mining, chemical productions, transportation, etc.).