This book is designed to introduce a community health group to the potential of using a geographic information system to improve birth outcomes. The book is aimed at novice to intermediate level GIS users, though even advanced researchers will gain from the detailed health examples. Chapters in this book provide an overview of why geography is important in the investigation of health, the importance of the four main components of a GIS (data input, manipulation, analysis and visualization), how important neighborhood context is when using a GIS, and the general differences found between urban and rural health environments. In addition, the reader is introduced to the importance of GIS and confidentially, how a mobile urban population may impact GIS findings, and why pregnant mothers should catered for when making disaster response plans. Examples are drawn heavily from the Baton Rouge Healthy Start program, with one chapter providing an overview guide as to how GIS can be incorporated in the initial grant writing stage for such a program.
Introduction : why write this book? -- Explaining the geography of infant health -- Geographic variations in infant health -- Smoking is bad -- What does it mean to be poor? -- Stress -- The geography of health -- An introduction to GIS (all things data) -- Data input -- Health data -- Confidentiality issues -- Address matching/geocoding -- Other useful data 1 : socioeconomic data -- Other useful data 2 : boundary and background data -- Data manipulation -- Aggregating into spatial units -- Data reduction -- Creating new data -- Improving health outcome information-- Perinatal periods of risks (PPOR) -- An Introduction to GIS (All things spatial) -- Visualizing the data -- Choropleth map -- Common dot map -- Isarithmic (isoline) map -- Proportional (graduated) point symbol map -- Spatial analysis -- CrimeStatTM-- GeoDaTM -- Geographically weighted regression (GWR) -- SaTScanTM -- GIS as a management information system -- What is a neighborhood? -- Including geography in the analysis -- Holistic neighborhood investigations -- Spatially synthesizing previous research -- The geography of health risks infant deaths, low birth weight and short gestation deliveries -- Medical risks -- Behavioral risks -- So what can we do with GIS? -- Cohort or social risks -- Social risks : disparities in African American neighborhoods -- Spatial cohort -- Neighborhood risks -- Suffer the children -- Environmental risks -- GIS analyses of environmental risks -- GIS, cancer and low birth weight research in Louisiana -- Cancer and birth outcome co-investigation template -- Summarizing it all : the relationship between risk and stress -- So what can be done? -- GIS and spatial analysis, keeping it simple -- Exploratory analysis vs. hypothesis testing -- Spatial design -- Spatial sampling -- Aggregation effects -- Three simple techniques : overlay, density and a difference of proportions test -- Overlay as analysis -- A cautionary tale -- Density analysis -- Difference of proportions test -- Results for year one (table 5:1) -- Results for year two (table 5:2) -- Results for year three (table 5:3) -- Under 18 pregnancies (table 5:4) -- Advanced spatial analysis spatial autocorrelation (SA) -- Global spatial autocorrelation -- Local spatial autocorrelation -- Cluster analysis -- Clustering techniques -- Spatial filtering (DMAP) -- Nearest neighbor hierarchical clustering (NNHC) -- Kernel density estimation -- Infant mortality and prenatal risks : the dase of East Baton Rouge parish -- Regressing selected prenatal risk factors on the infant mortality rate -- Regression diagnostics -- Geographically weighted regression -- Spatial/temporal stability in neighborhoods of risk : the mobility of mothers -- How far do the mothers move? -- Temporal stability and implications for outreach -- Developing a neighborhood categorization scheme based on temporal stability -- Constructing neighborhoods around mortality locations -- Temporal stability in risks around infant deaths -- Temporal stability in a global risk investigation -- Temporal stability in the four neighborhoods -- Results from the difference of proportions t-test -- Conclusions on temporal stability -- Patient sonfidentiality -- Confidentiality in maps -- Statistical (attribute) confidentiality -- Spatial (locational) confidentiality -- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services -- U.S. Census -- U.S. Department of Justice -- Geographically masking the location of confidential point data -- Results for global geographic masking -- Results for local geographic masking -- Preserving spatial confidentiality of two locally masked point patterns -- Creating the Baton Rouge Healthy Start GIS -- Beginnings -- Determining the program area -- Identifying areas with no prenatal care -- Neighborhood profiling -- Creating the database -- Data input -- Reaching out -- Post script -- Bioterrorism, pregnancy and old white men-- Vulnerability in the US -- Bioterrorism and pregnancy risk -- GIS and vulnerability mapping -- Identifying the vulnerable -- So how do we bring Healthy Start into this? -- Are pregnant women really vulnerable? -- Criticisms of syndromic surveillance -- Rural health issues and their investigation in a GIS environment -- Introduction -- The complexity of rurality -- Rural places and health -- An overview of some rural health issues -- Rural geography and dealing with rural data -- Conclusion.
Published: 1st January 2005