Schoolyards have come a long way from the barren playgrounds that many people remember. Today's school campuses often feature gardens in which students can learn about native plants and wildlife, grow vegetables and fruit, explore cultural traditions, practice reading and math skills, and use their imaginations to create fun play spaces. And for a growing number of urban students, these schoolyard gardens offer the best, if not the only, opportunity to experience the natural world firsthand and enjoy its many benefits.This book is a practical, hands-on guide for creating a variety of learning environments in the arid Southwest. Filled with clear, easy-to-use information and illustrated with photographs, drawings, and plans, the book covers everything necessary to create schoolyard gardens:An introduction to schoolyards as outdoor classrooms and several types of habitats, including art gardens, cultural history gardens, ecological gardens, literacy gardens, and vegetable gardensDesign theory, including a history of garden styles, and design principles and design elementsBeginning the design process, including identifying participants and writing a design program that sets out goals and requirementsConducting site research and synthesizing design elements to arrive at a final designDesign essentials, including project funding and design features, maintenance, accessibility, safety, and project evaluation and revisionWildlife ecology, including elements needed for survival such as food and shelterCreating gardens for pollinators and other wildlife, including hummingbirds, butterflies, bees, moths, bats, and flies, as well as pest controlLists of native plants for various kinds of habitats and nurseries that sell native plants, as well as books, web sites, and other resources for learning more about native plants and wildlifeThis guide will be essential for landscape architects, school personnel, parents, and students. Indeed, its principles can be used in designing schoolyard habitats across the country, while its information on gardening with native plants and wildlife will be useful to homeowners across the Southwest.
Preface Acknowledgments Introduction by Kim Duffek About This Book Making Outdoor Classrooms a Reality The Need for Wildlife Habitat and Native Gardens Bioregions of the Arid Southwest Chapter 1: Schoolyards The Schoolyard as an Outdoor Classroom Overview of Schoolyard Environments Introduction History of Playground Design with Applications for Contemporary Playground Design Nature and Play Adult Memories of Valued Play Places Implications for Design Learning and the Natural Outdoor Classroom Schoolyard Garden Types Art Gardens Cultural History Gardens Ecological Gardens Literacy Gardens Vegetable Gardens Chapter 2: Design Theory Introduction History of Garden Styles Prehistoric "Gardens" (20,000-3300 BC) Ancient Egyptian Gardens (3300-500 BC) Ancient Mesopotamian (3500-538 BC), Sumerian (3500-900 BC), Assyrian (900-625 BC), and Neo-Babylonian (611-538 BC) Gardens Ancient Persian Gardens (539-331 BC) Ancient Greek Gardens (700-136 BC) Ancient Roman Gardens (510 BC- AD 476) Ancient Chinese Gardens (1600 BC- AD 1279) Japanese Gardens (AD 575-1600) Medieval European Gardens (AD 476-1350) Islamic (Moorish) Gardens, Spain (AD 700s-1400s) Italian Renaissance Gardens (AD 1350-1765) French Grand-Style Gardens (AD 1495-1750) English Romantic Gardens (AD 1715-1840) Spanish Colonial Gardens (AD 1492-mid-1700s) Colonial and Early American Gardens (AD 1630-1840) American Romantic Gardens (AD 1830-1930) Victorian Gardens (AD 1820-1900) Classical Beaux-Arts Gardens (AD 1893-1930) Modern Gardens (AD 1930-late 1970s) Postmodern and Contemporary Gardens (AD mid-1970s-present) Design Fundamentals Design Principles Design Elements Chapter 3: Beginning the Design Process Introduction A Design Process for Planning Outdoor Classrooms, Wildlife Habitats, and Gardens Identify Participants Write a Design Program Conclusion Chapter 4: Site Research and Design Synthesis Review and Evaluate Previous Steps Site Research Site Selection Site Inventory Site Analysis Design Synthesis Conceptual Design Zones, Spaces, Design Features, and Spatial Sequencing Circulation Patterns Testing Design Concepts Preliminary Design Final Design Chapter 5: Design Essentials Introduction Project Funding Grants and Cash Donations In-kind Donations Organization of the Fund-raising Process Design Features Earthworks Ponds Plants Shade Structures Storage Areas Pathways Seating Walls Signs Maintenance Weeding Fertilization Pruning Bird Feeders and Bird Baths Accessibility Requirements Safety Project Evaluation and Revision Outdoor Classroom and Schoolyard Habitat Assessment Criteria Chapter 6: Ecological Principles and Wildlife by Kim Duffek Introduction to Wildlife Ecology Elements for Survival Food Resources Water Availability Providing Shelter Space to Survive Pollinator Gardens and Wild Visitors Introduction Hummingbird Gardens Butterfly Gardens Bee Gardens Moth Gardens Bat Gardens Fly Gardens Wildlife Gardens Completing the Web Pest Control Decomposition Unwanted Visitors Seeds for Thought Words of Inspiration Appendix: Regional Plant Tables by Kim Duffek References and Additional Reading