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Climate Under Cover - T. Takakura

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Published: 31st October 2002
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1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films triggered widespread use of floating mulch. Table 1.1. The use a/plastic mulch in the world (after Jouet, 2001).

Preface of 1st Editionp. ix
Preface of 2nd Editionp. xi
Introductionp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Europe and Americap. 3
Asiap. 3
Africa and Middle Eastp. 4
Japanp. 5
Covering materials: PE or PVC?p. 6
Greenhouse production in Japanp. 7
Floating mulch in Japanp. 7
Plastic Wastesp. 8
Problemsp. 10
Definition of Covering and Properties of Covering Materialsp. 11
Introductionp. 11
Mulchingp. 11
Row covers (Tunnels)p. 13
Floating mulches (Floating row cover)p. 13
Rain sheltersp. 14
Unheated greenhousesp. 14
Covering materialsp. 14
Problemsp. 17
Digital Simulationp. 19
Introductionp. 19
System dynamicsp. 19
Simulation languagesp. 20
Digital simulation by CSMP and MATLABp. 21
Concept of the analog computerp. 21
Comparison of CSMP and MATLAB programs with mathematical equationsp. 22
Model structure and representationp. 24
Differential equationp. 24
Description of systemsp. 26
Heat flow and temperature regime in the soilp. 28
A model for temperature regimes in the soil (CUC01)p. 30
Model descriptionp. 30
Application to steady state modelsp. 34
More on MATLABp. 34
Simulinkp. 37
Problemsp. 41
Heat Balance of Bare Groundp. 45
Introductionp. 47
Convective heat transferp. 47
A model with solar radiation and air temp. boundary condition (CUC02)p. 50
Mass transferp. 53
A model with latent heat transfer (CUC03)p. 55
Radiation balancep. 59
Long wave radiationp. 61
Problemsp. 64
Solar Radiation Environmentp. 65
Introductionp. 65
Units of radiation and lightp. 65
Solar radiation properties of covering materialsp. 66
Calculation of transmissivity (CUC04)p. 68
Solar radiationp. 72
The sun's altitude and azimuthp. 74
On a horizontal surfacep. 74
On a tilted surfacep. 78
Transmitted solar radiation (CUC05)p. 78
Problemsp. 83
Temperature Environment Under Coverp. 85
Introductionp. 85
Effect of mulchingp. 85
Experimental measurementsp. 85
A model to simulate temperature regime under clear mulching (CUC20)p. 87
Same model for black or white mulchp. 91
Results of CUC20 modelp. 93
Temperature environment under row covers (CUC30)p. 95
Double layer greenhouse model (CUC50)p. 101
A pad and fan greenhouse model (CUC35)p. 107
Problemsp. 117
CO[subscript 2] Environmentp. 119
Introductionp. 119
CO[subscript 2] concentration in soil layer (CUC70)p. 119
Program execution and outputp. 124
CO[subscript 2] concentration in a plastic house and ventilationp. 125
One dimensional interpolationp. 126
Problemsp. 127
Water and Water Vapor Environmentp. 129
Introductionp. 129
Water and water vapor movement in soilp. 130
Water and heat balance in soil layer (CUC90)p. 132
Interaction between water movement and heat flowp. 138
Problemsp. 140
Control Functionp. 141
Introductionp. 141
System responsep. 142
PID controlp. 144
Temperature control logic (CUC120)p. 144
Feedback vs. feedforward controlp. 148
Feedback and feedforward controlp. 148
System response and its application to feedforward controlp. 149
A floor-heating greenhouse with ideal conditions (CUC122)p. 149
Problemsp. 152
Plant Response to the Environmentp. 153
Introductionp. 153
Plant photosynthesis and respirationp. 153
Energy balance of a plant leafp. 155
Stomata resistance of plant (CUC151)p. 156
Plant growth modelp. 165
General concept of plant growth and yield modelsp. 165
Dry matter production model (CUC160)p. 165
Problemsp. 171
Referencesp. 173
Appendixp. 177
Indexp. 185
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402008450
ISBN-10: 1402008457
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 201
Published: 31st October 2002
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.2
Weight (kg): 0.47